Study Material

Read this only after going through the material given in Basic Knowledge


            Lord Morle declares-

'What is found in the Vedas exists nowhere else.'

      Accepting the Vedas as true science American lady Wheeler Vilox writes-

'We have all heard and read about the ancient religion of India. It is the land of the great Vedas-the most remarkable works containing not only religious ideas for a perfect life, but also the facts, which all the branches of science have since proved true. Electricity, Radium, Electorns, Airships all seem to be known to the seers, who found the Vedas.'


W.D. Brown expresses his following comments on Vedic Religion-

      ‘It (Vedic Religion) recognizes but one God. It is a thoroughly scientific religion, where religion and science meet hand in hand. Here theology is based upon science and philosophy.'


American scholar Thyoro explained importance of Vedas in following words-

      'What extracts from the Vedas I have read fall on me like the light of a higher and purer luminary which describes a loftier course through a purer stratum-free from particulars, simple, universal, the Vedas contain a sensible account of God.'

      Renowned Irish poet and philosopher Dr. James Cuzon writes in his book- Path to Peace-

      'On that (Vedic) ideal alone, with its inclusiveness which absorbs and annihilates the causes of antagonisms, its sympathy which wins hatred away from itself, it is possible to rear a new earth in the image and likeness of the eternal heavens.'

          Prof. Paul Theema of Ubnigan university said in his presidential address in 26th International Congress of Orientalists -

      'The Vedas are noble documents-documents not only of value and pride to India but to the entire humanity because in them we see man attempting to lift himself above the earthly existence.'

Renowned Parsi scholar Fardoon Dada Chanji writes about greatness of Vedas- 

      'The Veda is a book of knowledge and wisdom comprising the Book of Nature, the Books of Religion, the Book of Prayers, the Book of Morals and so on. The word ‘ ‘Veda’ means wit, wisdom, knowledge and truly the Veda is condensed wit, wisdom and knowledge.'

French scholar Jeckliyat writes in his book- The Bible in India -

      'Astonishing fact! the Hindu Revelation (Veda) is of all revelations the only one whose ideas are in perfect harmony with Modern Science as it proclaims the slow and gradual formation of the world.'

      Christian Father Moris Filip accepts Vedas to be the knowledge of God and writes-

      'The conclusion, therefore, is inevitable viz, that the development of religious thought in India has been uniformly downward, and not upward, deterioration and not evolution. We are justified, therefore, in concluding that the higher and pure conceptions of the Vedic Aryanas were the results of a primitive Divine Revelation.'

      J.Mascaro gave words to his thoughts as—

'If a Bible of India were compiled …………the Veda the Upanishads and the Bhagvad Gita would rise above the rest like Himalayas of the spirit of man.'


       ओ३म् विश्वानि देव----तन्न आसुव।              -Yajurved 30/3


Meaning -O God! You are inspirer of all the happenings of the universe. May all our evils & griefs vanish and we get all the good qualities & good things.

Explanation-Everyone wants to remove his evils & griefs and to receive good qualities & good things. As such, follower of any sect can pray to God through this mantra without any sort of reservations.

     Here, in this mantra, there is a mention of three words, meanings of which need contemplation. First word is prayer. A desire can become prayer only if it contains gravity. There can be imagination or even desire for certain unknown & unpossessed things but it cannot become a prayer. The basic element of prayer is a burning desire to possess a thing and it (burning desire to possess a thing) can be had only on understanding the value or meaning of that thing. A person praying for a thing without knowing the meaning of that thing can be called nothing but a fool. Generally, people pray for realization of God, salvation & freedom from the bondage of births & deaths without knowing the meaning of these phrases or words. By making such prayers, they, only, add to their sins. Second word is ‘evil or bad’. Bad is a relative term. A thing can be good or bad from different perspectives. Crux of the meaning of this word is-everything harmful for self for attaining the ultimate goal can be called to be ‘bad’. Presence of even a single evil can make your journey of life impossible. If whole of the body of a person is very strong but a very small cut is there on one of his toes, then, whole of his work will get hampered. As such, in this mantra, God has been prayed for removal of all repeat all evils. Third word is ‘benevolent or good’. All the things (living and non-living), which aim at removal of obstacles on the path of realization of God can be called to be ‘benevolent or good’.

     Here, in this mantra, there is a mention of God’s impelling or inspirational or stimulating power. This can only be understood through a worldly example. When rays of the Sun fall on living and non-living organisms, they (rays) awaken the energies, already present in these organisms. There is no cause & effect relation between rays of the Sun & the organisms. Just like worldly sun, God, too, stimulates souls. It is wrong to believe that God makes souls act in the way He wants. Souls are totally independent to do whatever they want and God’s inspirational power in no way cause dependency of souls’ actions. If, God wants evils to exist in the world, then, praying for removal of evils becomes meaningless. Again, a worldly example is given for making the concept of God’s inspiration understood in the right spirit. Rays of the Sun inspires both the seeds of chillies and that of mangoes alike. Because of this contribution of rays of the Sun, one type of seeds produce tanginess and the other type of seeds produce sweetness. Rays of the Sun do not produce tanginess or sweetness. They only inspire the seeds to manifest their natural powers. Similarly, feeling of theism inspires human beings to manifest their natural powers. On manifestation of their natural powers, malignant, harmful & injurious tendencies and things get automatically removed, in the way, germs of a disease meet their ends on attacking a strong man. Theism raises spiritual powers of man (by manifestation of his natural powers) to such an extent that evils cannot stand before such a person. This is the only difference between a theist and an atheist.

     Nothing is received free. Everything has to be earned. Going by the same logic, removal of evils has to be earned by praying for manifestation of natural or inherent powers of the self. Prayers to God for receiving external things are meaningless.

        Greatness of God’s inspirational power can be understood through another worldly example. Donation of alms can bring fame to the donator but it does not increase the capability of beggars. But, if, instead of donation of alms, capability of the beggars can be increased, they will not require donations anymore. God’s inspirational power awakens the inherent powers of living and non-living things.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


अग्ने नय सुपथा---नम उक्तिं विधेम।            -Yajurved 5/36

Meaning -O God! You are the lighthouse & show the right path to everyone. You know everything. For meeting the worldly end, please show us the right path devoid of evils & crookedness.  

Explanation-Here, in this mantra, God has been called by the name-‘Agni’.  ‘Agni’ is also the name of the fire. Fire emits light and in the dark, lamp etc. show the path. The Sun is a body of fire and there is nothing else in this universe equivalent to the Sun, which can be called a lighthouse.

          In the beginning of this world, man would have felt the necessity of a guide, who could show him the path. This necessity was fulfilled to some extent by this universe or nature. All the things of the nature from a small piece of grass to huge bodies like the Sun, teach man something or the other and an intelligent person remains anxious to learn from all these natural objects. But universe in itself is not capable enough to be a good teacher of man. We see in the world that small fish are eaten by the big fish. The sacrificing spirit is almost negligible in animals. We do not find husband-wife relationship in most of the mammals and since man, too, is a mammal, institute of marriage in man is considered by some elite to be unnecessary. From all such instances, we can easily conclude that blind following of nature is not advisable. Right path can be shown by a very intelligent entity. Accordingly, some have drawn the meaning of a ‘leader’ from the word ‘Agni’.  Since, God only is the true leader & guide, it is right to draw the meaning of God from this word.

         God has complete knowledge of everything whereas different things of the world throw light only on one or two perspectives of a thing. Since, God has complete knowledge of everything, the path shown by Him is straight and devoid of crookedness. Right path is only one. In a jungle, there may be hundreds of paths from one place to another. Some of them may lead us to the abodes of dangerous animals. These cannot be called right paths. Right path is always harmless. We develop ourselves through following others but no one would like to follow bad men. As such, there is a prayer to God to direct us on a path, which is free from evils. Wrong paths have attractions but a person, who understands the crookedness of evils, fears from evils, in the way a child fears from fire. Best way to kill temptation of moving on the wrong path is to think of the disadvantages of that evil. An evil-doer finds it impossible to think of the disadvantages of the evil, at the time, it is tempting him. We can see, in the world, that a student, who gets pleasure in wasting time un-fulfils duties of a student. Such a student fails to think of his failure in examination because of his habit of wasting time. A person, who succeeds in thinking of the disadvantages of the evils, is sure to have success.

            In many prayers, there are words suggesting that we pray to God for thousand or million times. Pronunciation of such words refer to the burning desire to obtain the thing prayed for. And a person, who has a burning desire to obtain a thing, not only prays but exerts also according to his capability. Vedic mantras do not accept the prayers, where, doer of prayer does not exert himself according to his own capacity to obtain the desired thing. Whatever is said, should be put into action by mind & behaviour.

            In this mantra, there is a prayer to God for guiding us toward the right path. Such a prayer is meaningful only if, it is made by the mover, who intends to go on that path. For instance, if a person does not intend to go to Kolkata, then, the time-table or enquiry for going to Kolkata is meaningless for him.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


विष्णोः कर्माणि पश्यत---युज्यः सखा।   -Rigved 1/12/19


Meaning -O Man! See the activities of God. This helps you in following your resolutions. God is the fastest friend of soul.

Explanation-Here, in this mantra, God has been called by the name ‘Vishnu’. By the word ‘vishnu’, we mean omnipresence of God.

            The Spirit of theism is- God is creator of this universe. By the phrase ‘creator of the universe’, we refer to all the activities, because of which this universe happens to be a universe i.e. from the first movement in elements which caused the beginning of creation of the universe till the last activity resulting into creation of the universe & the activities because of which this universe is existing as a universe. Doer of all these activities is God. All the theistic sects of the world accept this truth. Activities of man are different from that of God. Maker of clay-pot is not in any way concerned with the causes of existence of clay and the presence of natural laws controlling the maintenance of clay-pot after it has been made i.e. man remains with his creation only uptill the time it has been made. Unlike this, God remains with His creation all the time i.e. till the time it is dissolved.  In accordance with man-made creations, certain thinkers developed the view that God does create the world but does not dwell in it. As there are bad things also in the world, then, how can God exist in the bad things like mud, filth etc.? On the basis of this notion, the idea of separate abode of God called ‘heaven’ developed. Persons of such belief do not accept that God is present in hell as in heaven. Vedic philosophy contradict such view or belief.

       Vedic philosophy accepts that God is not only, creator but also, preserver and dissolver of this world. There is no demarcating line (s) among creation, maintenance or sustenance and dissolution. We cannot say that at a particular point of time creation has been completed and maintenance will begin. Actually, creation, sustenance and dissolution refer to a continuous flow of innumerable activities.  But, man because of his limited intellect draws boundaries among these activities. Let’s understand this through a worldly example. It is rightly said that movement of the Earth around the Sun create day & night. But, a man, sitting in a space shuttle, cannot say that on a particular point of time, the Sun has risen & at another particular point of time the Sun has set in. Similarly, we cannot say that activities after creation & before dissolution do not require God. This vedic thought is very very important. God called by the name ‘Vishnu’ refers to His attribute of omnipresence. There is nothing in the world, wherein God is not present. As such, there is no special abode of God called heaven.

     Some thinkers are of the view that God does not come in the bondage of action and He is not doer of any action but only spectator. This is not only against vedas but also is illogical. The basic difference between living & non-living things is while living things can act on their own whereas non-living things cannot do so. If God cannot act, then, He will come in the category of non-living things. If we do not consider God to be the creator of this universe, then we lose the very ground on which theism stands. Let’s contemplate over this concept through another way. On seeing a watch, you think that it has been made & decide to call the maker of the watch as watch-maker. Accordingly, you think of many attributes of watch-maker and compile the literature of watch-making. If, in the end, it is established that the person, called watch-maker does exist or he is not maker of the watch but mere spectator, then, whole of the literature of watch-making will come to naught. Similarly, if, we consider that this universe has been created by an entity different from God, then, the very basis of theism dwindles. Further, the persons, who consider God to be a mere spectator do not understand the meaning of this term. Spectation becomes meaningful only if, the spectator has the right to affect the observed.  

     Further, in this mantra, man has been advised to look at the activities of God in order to strengthen his resolutions. Here, ‘looking’ does not mean simple ‘seeing’. Man sees many events of this universe like rising of the Sun, flowing of a river, growing of vegetation, thundering of clouds etc. but simply seeing does not add to our knowledge leading us to understand the spirit of theism. A servant, who only sees the guest but does not enquire about him & tries to know his purpose of visit and a watchman, who only sees the thieves & does not know his duties after seeing the thieves is useless. Many persons had seen the apples falling from trees but it was only Newton, who actually saw this event and discovered the force of gravitation. Here, ‘to see the activities’ means ‘to have knowledge of the reasons because of which these activities took place’. The act of man of looking at the activities of God is not meaningless. By looking at the activities of God, man channelizes his involuntary flow of actions towards meeting his ultimate objective. All actions are not resolutions. Resolutions are only those actions, which help in meeting the objective. It is human psychology to follow others. But the acts, done merely by following others cannot be called ‘resolutions’. As such, we should not try to copy God’s activities but keeping our objective in sight, we should select only those paths, moving on which can lead us to fulfil our objective.  Man needs to decide about his resolutions by looking at God’s activities.

     In the world, the scientists analyse God’s activities or the events of the nature and follow the same. As a result, on seeing a fish swimming, they invented boats and on seeing the birds flying in the sky, they invented aeroplanes. ‘Following’ is the base of science. But actual objective of science is fulfilled when man understanding the difference in goals of fish or birds and humans, uses the boats & aeroplanes for his own objective. This mantra supports science, whereas many of the prevalent sects consider unveiling the secrets of the world as atheistic. This is the reason of development of the notion that science and religion are two separate or different things, which can never combine. On viewing God’s activities with highest of intellects, we would see that basic rules behind different natural events and souls’ activities are same. Rules of non-violence, truth etc. control the physical world as well as spiritual world. No one can be a theist by going against nature. It is similar to the fact that no one can be well-wisher of a kingdom by breaking the rules of that king.

     But, why should we see God’s activities and follow them? This question has been answered in the last part of the mantra, which says that we should follow God’s activities because He is the greatest and most capable friend of soul. Everything of this world advocates friendship of God and soul. For example, God has not only created eye, which is one of the greatest means of knowledge of souls but also has created the Sun for the help of this eye. There cannot be anyone bigger friend than Him, by viewing whose activities we could meet our resolutions correctly.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya



ईशा वास्यमिदं सर्वं---कस्य स्विद्धनम्।                      -Yajurved 40/1



Meaning –Whatever activities and events exist in this world, God’s power penetrates them all. O Man! You enjoy the things of the world with detachment. Do not get attached with anything of the world. Whose money is this? i.e. this money belongs to none.

Explanation-Here, in this mantra, the basic criterion of this universe, its relation with the souls & God, probable mistakes of souls while living in this universe and the way of avoiding these mistakes have been mentioned.  The basic criterion of this universe is its changefulness. Everything of the universe goes on changing. Some people say that the movement of the world is imaginary as to a person sitting in a moving car, trees on the road side seem as moving. Here, mind of such a person, who considers movements of this world as imaginary has to be considered as moving or live. This shows that movement is real & not imaginary. It connotes that the various systems (A system is a collective name of movements.) of the world, too, are real. Parts of a machine do not know that they are parts of the machine. Also, a machine does not know that which parts are its own. This knowledge is had by the maker of the machine. Likewise, it becomes necessary that this world, which is a great system has a creator. Some people have a notion that this great system named ‘world’ is automatic. Such people forget that even automatic machines have controllers. Existence of the systems prove that there is a creator of those systems i.e. God. To make the movements possible in everything, He remains present in everything of the world.

        Now, what should be the relation of soul with the ever changing things of the world? Moving on a path is possible only if we detach our back foot and place it ahead i.e. we will not be able to move forward, if our feet get attached to the path. Path is a mean of travelling but only if it does not get attached with the traveller. Path on its own does not attach itself with the traveller, rather, it is the traveller, who clings to the path. The travellers, who wish to reach at their destinations must not get attached to the various attractions, present on the way. This world is like a beautiful garden, which is required to be passed by soul. The soul, who gets caught by the attractions of the garden, cannot cross it to achieve his goal. While crossing this garden, soul can use its various things according to his needs and should consider it a mean of achieving his goal. This is a path to move on and not a place to stay at. Sacrificing spirit is the gist of usage. Sacrificing does not mean non-usage, rather, it means non-attachment.  Real pleasure is received when a thing is enjoyed with detachment. Pain is not in enjoyment but it is in the attachment. We cannot do away with usage of worldly things. It is not possible that we do not eat anything and do not get elated on viewing a beautiful thing. As long as, we are alive, we have to enjoy worldly things and to avoid over-enjoyment, there is an advice of detachment. Last part of the mantra says that things of the world are not for any particular soul. The things of the world at one point of time belongs to one soul and at another point of time belong to another soul. As such, this mantra speaks of four major things-(1)        Reality of the systems of the world (2)          God to be the master of the world (3)            Things of the world are meant for usage (4) not to get attached with the things of the world.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

हिरण्यगर्भः समवर्तताग्रे भूतस्य---हविषा विधेम।   –Rigved 10/121/1

Meaning –Before this creation, there was an entity, wherein all the things of the world existed in seed form. That entity was the one & only master of the universe. That God maintains this earth and all the celestial bodies. We should worship that God with all our possessions.

Explanation- Questions, which get raised in the minds of all intellectuals on seeing this creation are-How was this world made? Who made this world? What state existed before creation of the world?

     For making a thing, three types of causes need be there. First is agental cause. It refers to the maker of a thing. Second is material cause. It refers to the materials out of which a thing is to be made. Third is the general cause like hands, tools, knowledge for making, time & place. To better understand this whole concept, let’s illustrate it with a worldly creation like making of a clay-pot. Now, for making of a clay-pot, firstly, the maker of pot is must, secondly, there must be clay which is to be transformed into a pot, thirdly, the knowledge of making the pot, the means necessary for making the pot- hands etc. should be available. Existence of maker of a thing only cannot make a thing. Making of a thing requires presence of other two causes too. Some sects believe that for creating the world, God did not need anything else. He wished and the world was created out of nothing.

     This mantra says that this world was not made out of nothing. Nothing is possessed by everyone including all lazy persons & poor persons. If, something more than nothing is required, effort or exertion is needed for that. If, this world was made out of nothing, then, why there is necessity of sowing the seeds of wheat for having the production of wheat and that of sowing the seeds of mangoes for having the production of mangoes. Further, it (this mantra) says that before manifestation of the things of the world, they existed in the seed form in the womb of God (it could not be womb of nature as nature is non-living). If a goldsmith could make ornaments without gold, then he would be called not a goldsmith but a magician. Creation is not a handiwork of a magician. God never creates without a material cause. Even today, in God’s creation, water is converted into steam and steam further gets converted into clouds. Clouds are neither made of sand nor devoid of water. God is as powerful today as He was before creation of this world.

     God not only creates this world but also maintains it. The basic difference between creation of God and creation of man is- while man separates himself from the thing, after it has been made but unlike this, God remains forever with His creation and assumes the responsibility of maintaining the same. He is the controller of all living and non-living things of the world. He is one and not many. Existence of same rules in whole of the universe prove that controller of this universe is one. He is rightly called master of the universe. God, who keeps the universe in its seed form in His womb maintains or nurtures it in its manifested form.

     In the last part of the mantra, man has been advised to worship Him with all his possessions. Worship of that great master should be through mind, speech and behaviour. Our minds should contemplate the attributes of the controller of the universe. We should speak only good things and our acts should be for the welfare of others.

     This mantra establishes following things through word-evidence:

  1. God was present before creation of the world.
  2. All the materials, out of which God created this universe were present in God’s womb in seed form.
  3. He has created this universe and is maintaining or nurturing it.
  4. He is one and not many.
  5. We should worship only Him.


  -Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


इन्द्र मृळ मह्यं---मा देववन्तम।        -Rigved 6/47/10

Meaning -O omnipotent God! Be kind enough to give us livelihood. May our intellects be sharp like a sword. May I love you with all my heart and you fulfil all my prayers. May I have the qualities of the great men.  



     Here, livelihood refers to all the means required for leading a good life. To keep our lives in good shape, we require food, cloths, habitats & medicines. For entertainment, we require beloved ones & friends. To be saved from the attacks of our foes, we require protectors. For mental satiety, we require admirers & followers. All these are means for leading a healthy life. But healthy life, too, needs a goal or purpose. Suppose, we own a vehicle, which is good to look at & strong enough, but, if we are not to go anywhere, then such a vehicle loses its meaningfulness. Everything possesses three qualities-utility, durability & beauty. Out of these three qualities, utility of a thing is the most important. Quality or durability occupies second place. If there is no use of a strong & beautiful thing, then, it is a waste. Use of a thing is possible only if it remains durable for a while. Beauty occupies the last place. It is a relative quality. If a beautiful thing lacks utility, it starts looking ugly. In the world, we see that parents love and prefer the ugly son, who obeys them & remains in their service.

      If God has been kind enough to bestow human life on us, then, his kindness is again prayed for, for giving us the right means for leading a healthy life. Foremost of these means is the love for life. May we have the desire of keeping our lives healthy by recognising His kindness of bestowing human lives on us.

      In many literary works, we find the writings saying that a thing received free of cost loses its recognition by the possessor. Vedic philosophy does not say that life is received free of cost. No doubt, this body is given by God out of His kindness but He gives this body in accordance with our past earnings. As such, we should have love & respect for our life, which should be reflected through all our actions. Life is very valuable and it should be sacrificed for a thing, which is more valuable than life itself. Purpose of creation of this world is more valuable than life. Accordingly, life can be given for meeting the purpose of creation. As such, to commit suicide is a greatest sin.

Importance of sharpness of intellect

     It is really difficult to safeguard such a valuable life. There are many hurdles in this way. Some of these hurdles come in the form of avarice. The basic problem in meeting these hurdles is that we find difficulty in recognising hurdles as hurdles. Man’s greatest weakness is that he recognises his foes as his friends & his friends as his foes. If we analyse human life, we will find that man gets pains because he considers his foes as his friends & harmful things as beneficial ones. Only a sharp intellect can resolve this difficulty. That person is the weakest, whose intellect is blunt. Use of intellect is discouraged especially in religious fields. Intellect gets sharpened by questioning spirit but religious teachers of many sects discourage this questioning spirit of the people by saying that exploration of the secrets of the world is against the desire of God. But vedas do not teach this. Without using our intellect, how would we come to know that which principles of which teacher are acceptable and which principles of which teacher are unacceptable? All the sects consider their preachers to be true and preachers of other sects to be wrong. Except intellect, we possess nothing to distinguish between truth and untruth.

     It is true that man’s intellect is small and it cannot comprehend subtle matters. It is also true that intellects of all the persons is not equal. Even knives are not equal in sharpness. For hard substances, sharper knives are required as compared to for soft substances. Here, nowhere negation of intellect is meant. If we do not use our intellect considering it small, then, it will bring two disadvantages. Firstly, we will be devoid of the armoury we had in our fight against ills. What else, except intellect we have? Secondly, with the non-use of intellect it will become blunter & blunter. With the regular usage, even a blunt intellect becomes sharper with the passage of time and if, intellect is not used at all, then, even sharp intellect becomes blunt. As such, the greatest foe of ‘dharm’ is the person, who in the name of his sect advices non-usage of intellect. Intellect can be sharpened only through usage. In the world, we see that everyone from a fruit seller to a preacher of salvation, try to befool us. Like goodness of fruits, way to the salvation, too, will be judged by the intellect. The vedic principle is- a thing should be agreed to, only if, it is acceptable to the intellect. For these reasons, in this mantra, intellect has been compared with a sharp sword and intellect, capable of understanding the ultimate truth has been prayed for.

True worshipper

     A true worshipper cannot pray for a thing, which is against the will of God. He does not pray for any specific condition but remains happy in the ways of God, even if those ways are seemingly disadvantageous to him. A worshipper moves closer to God to the extent he accepts the ways of God from his heart. As such, the prayers, wherein the worshipper clings to his demands are against vedas.

Objective of praying

     In the last part, the mantra specifies that a worshipper prays for the things from God with the objective of becoming great human being. If the attributes of God do not flow in the worshipper, then his worship becomes meaningless. Meaningfulness of life lies in reaching at the level of the greatest of men from the level of ordinary human beings.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


                        सं गच्छध्वं सं वदध्वं---संजानाना उपासते।        -Rigved 10/191/2

Meaning -O Men! Bring oneness in your walking and talking. May minds of you all meet at one place in your search for truth. By oneness of your thinking, speech and actions, you decide about share of each with love on the foot-prints of learned ones i.e. great men.

Explanation- This mantra preaches about the ways of making & maintaining a good human society and the methods by which the highest benefit can be obtained from it. It refers to the crux of Rigved.

            This preaching is for humans, since other animals can be benefitted by a disciplined human society only.

           Man is a gregarious animal. Animals like pigs, cows, crows, bees, ants etc., too, live in groups but it is really a big task to create human societies and maintain them. It needs very intelligent planning. Similar types of organisations of animals other than humans are seen from time immemorial without any need of any social-literature. But, for creation of a good human society, social-literatures are regularly made according to different times & different civilizations.

         There are three methods of bringing oneness in humans. These methods are-walking, speaking & thinking. Society does not refer to groups. Even ten organised men can be called a society if, they have the qualities of a good society. Building a good society needs a proper planning behind it.

          O Men! Bring oneness in your walking. How is it possible? Speed of everyone varies. A slow person does not have the capability to walk faster and why should a quick-walker curtail his speed? But, if, all the people think like this, then, a good society cannot be made and without a good social structure, man cannot progress. Control by quick-walkers over their speeds and exertion on the part of slow-walkers are two means of bringing oneness in walking. Concept of oneness in walking can be better understood by looking at the parade of soldiers. In a parade of soldiers, there are hundreds of men having different speeds of walking. But, their control is such that when one person raises his right foot, then, all the others, too, raise their right feet. A soldier having the capacity to walk faster controls his speed and lowers the same a bit and a soldier having a slow speed raises his speed a bit. An army, which does not possess the quality of moving at the same speed cannot be called disciplined one and such an army cannot conquer its foes. As such, this mantra reiterates the fact that progress or development of a society does not depend upon the number of its members. Instead, members of a society should be disciplined enough to bring coordination in their movements.

     The mean of bringing coordination in the movements is communication through sweet voice. Voice of the commander saying left, right coordinates the movements of all the soldiers. Suppose, a father wants his kid to move along with him.  Child says that he has not the capacity to move at the speed of his father. Father replies that the kid need not worry. Further, he says that he will move at a slow speed and asks his kid to hold one of his fingers. Communication inspires the kid to move faster. From this instance, we can rightly conclude that speech or voice is inspirer of feet, where, feet represent movements. Voice is subtler than feet and mind is subtler than both of these two.

      This mantra, further, says that all the members of a society should have oneness in their thoughts and this is the greatest mean of making a good society. The origination of conflicts & quarrels lie in difference in thoughts. Difference of thoughts create unrests in the society. As such, biggest mean of building a society is to have meaningful meetings. In the meetings, the persons having different view-points sit together and have discussions on a particular topic. Discussions enable man to coordinate his view-point with that of the others. Every thought towards selfish gains include an element of harm and this element of harm gets visible or understandable through healthy discussions. In politics, there is a great importance of such discussions or negotiations.

      Lastly, this mantra points towards the method adopted by the learned fellows for distributions of various assets of the universe among different souls. All the living beings require a portion of this universe for healthy living. Non-learned fellows are guided by their vested interests towards this end whereas for learned ones, welfare of others assumes the priority and the other people take care of the requirements of the learned ones by following their foot-steps. ‘Yaj’ means all actions done for the welfare of others. As such, we can say that a good society is built by ‘yaj’ and all persons get their due parts in the universe through it.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतं-----लिप्यते नरे।               -Yajurved 40/2


Meaning – Man should wish for an active life of hundred years. This is the only mean to be free from bondages. There is no other way out.

Explanation- This mantra shows the importance of karmas (actions). Main concept of this mantra is-
“Do actions. Only actions can make you free from the bondages”.

      This sentence seems to be a paradox, which gets cleared on elaboration. Actions create bondages and to be free from these bondages, only actions are the means. But such actions are of different sort. Let’s explain this concept through an example. Ill-will creates diseases. Here, ill-will refers to actions and diseases refer to bondages. Diseases can be got cured through treatments, which are another kind of actions.

      There is a notion that God decides as to who is to remain in bondage and who is to be freed from bondages irrespective of his karmas. This has, further, resulted into another notion that government has built very strong jails and whatever a jailed person may try, he cannot be free from the bondage of jail. To say it in in other words, some people believe that one can do nothing but wait till God wills to free him from bondages. Number of people having such a notion is the highest among the so called theists. Such a notion has resulted into inertness.

     All the actions cannot free one from bondages. Actions like breaking the jail or befooling the watchman do not lose bondages, rather, because of such actions bondages become stricter.

      All persons live but very few people think that what they will do by living. There is no meaning of living without a desire to do karmas. Had God willed man to lead an inactive life, He would not had bestowed man with knowledge-senses (eyes, ears, nostrils, taste-buds & skin) and karm-senses (hands, feet, speaking ability of tongue, genital organ & anus). God has instilled in all our organs some sort of inspiration to be engaged continuously in doing karmas. The karmas, which we do wilfully give us pleasure and the karmas, which we do un-wilfully become means of our bondages. People enjoy walking but if there is a compulsion or order to walk irrespective of one’s will, then, even walking would lose its enjoyment. As such, there is an advice, in this mantra, to man to wish to live for hundred years and to lead a life of concrete planning towards moving forward on the path of his ultimate goal. A person, who intelligently plans his karmas and tries to move according to that, breaks the shackles of all bondages. A prisoner, who continuously does his assigned tasks & behaves well with others, becomes free from the bondage of prison one day.

     There can be three types of defects in doing karmas-not doing the duty, doing undutiful actions & doing the duty the wrong way. Karmas with any of these three defects become the reason of bondage. When, it is said that we cannot remain for a moment without doing any karma, then, it never means that we should do any action without thinking of its results.  Actually, there cannot be any karma without thinking of its result. A farmer before sowing wheat thinks of the benefit he would drive by sowing wheat. Here, the thought of result or fruit is not ignored. What concerns, here, is mentality of doing karma. When, it becomes certain that a particular action is our duty, then, it is not right to go on pondering over the fruit. To understand this concept, let’s take the help of an example. Suppose, you are employed in a company. You accepted the job only when it became certain that you will get so much pay for the job. But, when you are on the job, you think only of the work at hand and do not go on pondering over your salary. An employee, who leaves thinking of his work and remains busy in thinking of the salary cannot be called a good worker.

     Some people think that this mantra is not for learned ones and learned fellows do not need to do their duty. There is an assumption that knowledge & karmas are two separate things. But, actually, such is not the case. Only a knowledgeable person can perform his duties well. This fact can be verified from our day to day incidents. When, there is no coordination between mind & hands, feet etc., then, it is said to be a state of insanity. Actually, this mantra advises man to do all his duties with thorough application of mind & with proper knowledge as this is the only way to be free from the bondages of actions. Many knowledgeable persons might have propagated the theory of difference in knowledge & karmas by way of their commentaries of vedas probably, for the reason of fighting with certain prevalent conditions of their times. But, this was an imaginary remedy which cured one disease and created another. Such sort of commentaries of vedas drove man away from the knowledge hidden in these mantras.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


सहॄदयं सांमनस्यविद्वेषं---वत्सं जातमिवाघ्न्या।         -Atharvved 3/30/1

Meaning –I make you a person of good mind and heart. One human being should behave with another in the way cow behaves with her new born baby.

Explanation- In this mantra, there is a great teaching as to how one should behave with others. Here, the sentence- ‘I make you a person of good mind and heart.’ means that the purpose of this teaching of mine is that you become so. The style of all the vedic mantras is such that they are teachings from God to man or from teachers to their disciples or from the preachers to listeners. All the teachings of the preachers should be such that man can improve his behaviour by that.

     An ideal human being possesses two basic qualities. First, he possesses a loving heart and does not have any ill feelings towards anybody. Second, he is intelligent enough to comprehend the spirit of everything. If, one has loving heart only and does not possess the decisive power of mind, then he cannot do welfare of the world. An unintelligent person is harmful not only for his own self but also for others. Suppose, you are sleeping and a bee sits on your nose. An unintelligent friend of yours, who loves you very much is sitting beside you. Out of his love for you, he intends to save you from his sting. For saving you from his sting, he picks up a stone & strikes the same on your nose. Bee flies and your nose gets hurt. What will you say of such a friend? No doubt, this friend had a loving heart but had no mind. This world is full of such loving people, who do not have minds. Millions of foolish parents out of their love for their children destroy their future. Most of the people get involved in attachment & lust in the name of love, without understanding the real spirit of this word. A foe is said to be intelligent, if, he understands the importance of your friendship for his vested interests and befriends with you for the sake of his selfishness. Likewise, a person is intelligent, if, he understands that his welfare lies in welfare of others and so thinking, he devotes his actions for the welfare of others not for any charitable cause, but, for his own sake. Thinking bad of others is a contagious disease and it can be cured only by the combination of good heart & intelligent mind. This thought is there in many vedic mantras. Whenever, there is an emotion of hatred towards anything or anybody, remember that this mantra reiterates loudly that thinking so is against the purpose of creation as well as against the will of God.  

     In all the languages, three types of words are used as names of things. First type of words, used for names of things are those, where there is perfect correlation between the words used and qualities & nature of the things named. On a little deterioration, such words refer to mean only particular things possessing qualities & natures embedded in the word. On further deterioration, words used as name of things do not at all relate with the qualities & natures embedded in the words. For instance, there is a Sanskrit word ‘pankaj’, which means growing in water. All the things grown in water can be named as ‘pankaj’. But with a little deterioration, a particular flower grown in water is used to be meant by this word. When a particular person is named as Pankaj, it connotes to the stage when name of things do not at all relate with the qualities & natures embedded in the words.

     The word ‘aganya’, used in this mantra means all the things, which should not be killed. But, here, this word refers to a particular animal i.e. cow. Why is this word used to mean cow? Cow’s milk comes after that of the human-mother. For this reason, we happen to develop special regard for cow. Cow is epitome of love and generosity. Cow occupies a very important place in vedic culture. There are two primary needs of a child. First is cleansing and second is food. Human-mother gets occupied so much in her own weakness after giving birth that primary care of the new-born baby is taken by the close relatives of the human-mother whereas first act of cow after giving birth is to cleanse her new-born baby from the filth of the womb. Love of cow for her baby becomes the means of cleaning. Dirty things can be touched by hands or feet, smelled by nose but tongue is considered such a pure part of the body that everyone is disinclined in placing dirty things on his tongue. But, cow cleans the filth of the womb from her new-born baby by her tongue. After, getting cleaned, requirement of the new-born baby is food. Although, every mother is eager enough to feed her baby by her milk but not like cow. Love cannot be explained better by the example of love of cow for her new-born baby. Ved has beautifully described ‘love’, through the example of cow. This example teaches us that we should act for physical, mental & social cleansing of the persons coming in our contacts.  

     If a rich man distributes cloths or food among the poor people and does not think of removing economic & social ills present in them, then, his act cannot be acclaimed. Most of the charitable or generous acts are done unintelligently and because of this reason, they increase social ills.

     In the end, we can reiterate the teachings of this mantra in following sentences.

  1. Love all other beings.
  2. Combine your emotion of love with intelligence.
  3. Behave with others in such a way that there is no room for hatred.


-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya



उद् वयं तमसस्परि---सूर्यमगन्म ज्योतिरुतत्मम्।  -Rigved 1/50/10

Meaning – Rising above the darkness or evils, we saw light of God. On moving farther, we found more light and on still moving farther, we realized the illuminator of all illumined things i.e. God.

Explanation- Man engrossed in worldly affairs fails to see God, who is present in all worldly things. It is similar to our inability to see the shining sun, when whole of the atmosphere around us is covered by dense fog. Worldly affairs cover up the light just like fog. Everyone does not see God. Had God been visible to every person, all the persons of the world would have been theists and there would not have been any place for darkness & evils in the world. Seeing capacity of all persons is not the same. What to talk of Godliness, even physical things are not seen by all of us alike. The attributes, which a scientist can see in a plant cannot be seen by a kid. Eye of a gardener is more powerful than that of a common man and likewise, eye of a scientist is more powerful than that of a gardener. This fact establishes a very important truth that theism is not obtained instantly like a magic. A child studying letter by letter becomes capable of studying very difficult books after a period of time. If a person wants to become a mathematician, the knowledge of mathematics is not acquired by him in a day. Similarly, obtaining knowledge in any field takes time. In the same manner, theism cannot be acquired in a day. One cannot become a theist or have the knowledge of the biggest entity i.e, God by listening to a few discourses.

     When, we are unable to see the sun because of fog, then, if, we move to a height, we will see the bright sun. Why? It is because, we have moved higher than fog. The fact, which applies on physical light, also, applies on mental & spiritual knowledge. For an illiterate person, a book is as if, someone has spread ink on blank papers but when he starts moving towards literacy, then, every letter becomes representative of knowledge. One, who intends to realize God must raise himself higher than evils. Specific method of realising God has been explained in yog-sutras, wherein realisation of non-violence & truth have been mentioned to be the elementary steps for God-realization and truth etc. cannot be realised in a day. How can the persons, not willing to raise themselves above the darkness of untruth & violence realize God? Lives of great men represent the high altitudes, above which, light of wisdom become visible and for this reason they (lives of great men) are great inspirations for common man.  

     When, one sees a ray of light, he should not be satisfied by that condition. He should go on practicing. Soon, he would be able to see more light. Ultimately, on saturation of practice, he would be able to see the source of light i.e. God.

      When, one rises above the darkness of evils, the light, which was earlier hardly visible to him becomes clearer & clearer and he begins to understand that light of God is brighter than all other lights and brightness of all other lights is because of light of God. All the illumined objects of the world owe their illuminations to the light of God.

       Looking in the upward direction for heaven, actually, connotes rising above the darkness of evils. Light of God is visible to that heart only, wherein darkness of evils has lessened. It is similar to the fact that a dirty mirror fails to reflect the light of sun.

       In summation of this mantra, we can say that there is step by step development of theism. Higher stage is reached by continuous practice.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya


Whole Vedic Literature should be viewed as a single entity. Till swami Dayanand every learned person viewed different books of Vedic Literature as separate entities and quarrelled over the issues raised in them. Swami Dayanand realised this folly and could answer all queries regarding Vedic Literature taking / considering it as a single entity or in other words, swami Dayanand only could see the coordination among different books of vedic literature. All Vedas whether it be Rigved, Yajurved, Atharv ved or Samved are 'authorities' by themselves whereas other Vedic Literature is acceptable only if it agrees with Vedas. Swami Dayanand stuck to this truth throughout his life. Though, vedas are considered sacred by every sect of Hinduism, yet there is no unanimity among different sects of Hinduism regarding many spiritual fields. Swami Dayanand clarified many prevalent imbiguities  on various issues on the basis of knowledge contained in vedas. He proved that science is inherent in spiritualism i.e. spiritualism is not devoid of science. He generated a new (new, from the angle of time) insight to look at the vedic mantras. He showed that there lies in vedas answers to all the questions of man, whether that question relates to spirituality, physics, chemistry or any other field of science. By the path shown by him, he didn’t save a few persons from drowning but taught man how to swim.  

‘Satyarth Prakash’ is the master piece of the writings of Maharishi Swami Dyanand, who founded the institution named ’Arya Smaj’. Swami Dyanand was the first person in the modern era, who advocated the questioning spirit to know a thing as he realized the importance of logic in imbibing the spirit of a thing. In this direction, we must find out the logical answers to the questions- why did Swamiji write this book? What was the need to write this book? For obtaining answers to such questions, we must look at the background of making of this great master-piece. Around, 1850, when Swamiji left his home and went from one place to another in order to quench his thirst for ‘truth’, two major events took place in the international arena. First event was the immediate success in England of the theory of ‘socialism’ propounded by Karlmarx. Second event was invitation to Prof. Maxmuller by the University of Oxford for translation of Rigved in English towards facilitation of spread of Christianity in India. Indians had great respect for their sacred books-the vedas. Englishmen wanted someone to find out the shortcomings of the scriptures named vedas so that by telling out the shortcomings, faith of the Indians over their sacred vedas could be crumbled and teachings of the Christianity could be placed in the gap, so generated.

Karlmarx wanted this world to bring forth an institution, wherein there is total lack of favourtism of any sort. He wanted such an institution not to have any link, whatsoever, with God and religion. Karlmarx was of the view that it is because of God & religion that there is no equality in the society. As such, Karlmarx and his followers wanted to make a society where there is no God or His representative, no religion, no sacred book & the like. This was the first school of thought.

Unlike Karlmarx, Maxmuller was not a communist but a staunch Christian. Though, he liked Sanskrit, he did not have love for vedic culture. He did not find anything in whole of the vedic literature, which could be called better than the teachings of the Christianity.  He translated Rigved in English for fulfilling his objective of spread of Christianity in India. He wanted to bring out the shortcomings of the vedas so that Indians could know that vedic culture did not have anything worthwhile. The reason behind invitation of Prof. Maxmuller by British Govt. for translation of Rigved in English was to increase the political effect of Englishmen in India and thereby to establish the roots of the British Empire in India. This was the second school of thought of that time.

Besides these two schools of thoughts, certain people of India only, were trying for the spread of Islam by criticizing the Hindu religion. Though, some Hindus tried to give replies to these criticisms, they didn’t have a solid base to defend their philosophy. Also, at that time, western culture started penetrating Indian society at a good speed. Inventions of steam engine, rail, telegram etc. affected Indian life-style greatly.

In such backgrounds, Swami Dayanand entered the field. Swami Dayanand did not take birth in Europe, He did not know languages like English, Urdu, Pharsi etc. He had all his education in Sanskrit language. At that time, Sanskrit was considered a dead language and its study was done by the fellows, out of some sort of attachment towards this language without any thought of progressiveness. After coming of Islamic emperors, people of India started studying ‘Arabi’ & ‘Pharsi’ as all the Govt. work was carried in these languages. Deep study of Sanskrit literature was restricted to very limited centres. General public of India had lost its link with Sanskrit language. This language was resorted to only while carrying out certain religious rituals like marriage, cremation etc. After great ‘tapasaya’ of almost twenty years, Swami Dayanand realized that it was ‘vedic dharm’ only, which could conquer the onslaughts of ‘communism’, ‘Christianity’ & ‘Islam’ by bringing forth the truth of vedas before the Indian society.

Though, Christianity advanced in India because of wrong translation of Rigved done by Maxmuller but its spread was hurdled a lot by the truth of the vedas. Arya Smaj (Arya Smaj was founded by Swami Dayanand with the objective of spread of teachings of the vedas) told the people that it is possible to do away with ‘God’ but it is not possible to leave God and be moral at the same time.



‘Satayarth Prakash’ is a great book written by Swami Dayanand in Hindi, to pen down his thoughts. Writing of this book in Hindi, when mother tongue of Swami Dayanand was Gujrati language (Swami Dayanand was native of a small state of India named Gujrat), too, had an objective. Despite existence of many regional languages, 3\4 people of India can understand Hindi. Had this book been written in a regional language, not many people could have been benefitted by its thoughts For Hindi language, Swami Dayanand used the term ‘Arya language’. This term helped a lot in increasing the stature of this language. Previously, Swami Dayanand did not know Hindi. When Mr. Keshav of Brahamosmaj requested Swami Dayanand to use people’s language to reach out to them, Swami Dayanand, considering appropriateness of this suggestion, penned down his thoughts in the book ‘Satayarth Prakash’ in Hindi.

Though, this book contains explanation to many philosophical truths, it remains very very beneficial for general people too. This book consists of two parts. In the first part, besides giving logical explanation to many general beliefs of the Hindus, many philosophical truths regarding behaviour of man from inception of his life till end have been given. In the second part, it has been shown that how many religions / sects / beliefs, which exist in this country whether they (sects etc.) have taken birth in this country or abroad are away from logic (logic is a tool of science). In the end, swamiji has mentioned his beliefs and disbeliefs. In the introduction to this book, swamiji has written, “My very objective of writing this book is to bring forth real meanings of the true & false things, as truth means to speak, write and believe all the objects as they are i.e. to establish true things as ‘true’ and false things as ‘false’. A biased person concentrates himself in establishing false things of his own religion / sect / belief to be true and true things of another religion / sect / belief to be false. As such, a biased person can never know the truth. It is the duty of the learned fellows to bring forth the truth before the public through their speeches and writings. After that, it is upto the general public to grasp the truth out of that in accordance with their intellects. Every soul is capable of knowing the truth & untruth but because of his stubbornness, unknowledge & prejudice towards his particular beliefs, he fails to accept the truth and bends towards falsehood. Such things are absent in this book. Since, true teachings are the only source for development of mankind, this book contains only those things, knowing of which can enable a person to accept the truth and to leave the untruth. The purpose of this work is not to hurt & harm anyone.”

In the first part of this book i.e. in the first ten chapters, swamiji has advocated different vedic principles. From second to fifth chapters, swamiji explained as to how vedic princilples relate to man’s development from his birth till death. In the second part of this book, which comprises four chapters, swamiji has given a bird’s eye view of the principles of other religions / sects / beliefs, which are different from vedic dharm but exist in India. Hindu dharm is a mixture of unlike-things. When we talk of Hindu dharm, we do not mean specific principles. As such, it is very difficult, rather, impossible to define it logically. It does not have one worship-able deity, one method of worshipping, uniform rituals & uniform principles. Both animal killer and animal-saviour get fitted within the ambit of Hindu dharm. No doubt, such a plight is because of the unknowledge (opposite of knowledge) of the principles enshrined in the vedas. Now, somehow, the natives of this country are called ‘Hindus’. This book aims at telling of the true dharm of mankind as per vedas. Though, the truth of the vedas is not for any particular race or creed but people of this country, who believed the words of the vedas to be their dharm for lakhs of years, needed this truth to be unveiled. Because of spread of unpopularity of vedas among masses, there developed many sects with in the Hindu religion, having their beliefs opposite to those of vedas. In the eleventh chapter of this book, swamiji has shown that how these sects are away from truth. In the twelfth chapter of this book, swamiji took up the religions namely Charvak, Jainism and Bodhism, which, though, originated in this country, but were against the vedic principles. . In the thirteenth and fourteenth chapters of this book, swamiji analysed, in brief, Christianity and Islam respectively. Both of these religions exist in India. The purpose of criticising these religions was to show how these religions are away from truth. Swamiji believed that these religions could flourish only because of unknowledge of the real swaroop (nature) of dharm.



Because of inclusion of a lot of Sanskrit grammar, first chapter appears a little bit boring. In fact, this chapter forms the basis for understanding the further chapters in their spirit.  That time, like today, many gods were worshipped by Hindus. These gods were said to be 33 crores in number, though, nowhere there is a mention of the names of these gods. Many names of gods like Shiv, Vishnu, Brahma, Laxmi, Sarasavati etc. happen to be there in vedas also. On these basis, worshippers of these gods claimed their rituals to be in consonance with vedas. Swami Dayanand, for the first time, gave logical explanation of these names of gods supported by their grammatical roots. He answered the questions like who are gods, do they live at earth or somewhere out of earth (heaven) & do these gods refer to God or is God  different from gods? He established that use of the words like Shiv, Vishnu, Brahma, Laxmi, Sarasavati etc. in vedas refer to different qualities or attributes of the one God and these names do not mean different gods. Further, he proved that it is very much possible to explain a single thing by different words, where, these words refer to different qualities of the same thing. Because of unknowledge of this fact, Hindus created many gods and this became the basis of their idol worship.


-As God has many attributes, His names, too, are many.

-Personal name of God is AUM.

-Meaning of the word should be taken depending upon the context.

-That person is called great, who is great in his attributes, actions & nature. God is the greatest of all such great persons. There is & will be no one at par with God.



In this chapter, swamiji has given the vedic thoughts on education of children. Swamiji was of the view that education of a child starts months before his coming into the world. Personality of a child, besides owning his individuality, is very much affected by the bodily & mental health of his parents. As such, swamiji has written as to what sort of things should be eaten by the parents and what sort of thinking & behavioural pattern should be of the parents.

There are many wrong notions prevalent in the Indian society regarding birth of a child, which need be replaced by true ones. One such notion is- making of ‘janam patri (horoscope)’ of the child by the ‘future-tellers’ and on the basis of such ‘janam patri’, to make estimates of the future of the child. This type of thinking of the parents has increased the importance of future-tellers, who make money by playing with the feelings of the parents through making multi-colored ‘janam patri’ of the new born babies.

Besides these, there are wrong notions regarding ‘bhut’ & ‘pret’ in the Indian society, because of which, in many cases, when children are suffering from certain diseases, they are handed over to the persons claiming cures from ‘bhut’ & ‘pret’ instead of proper medication. Many children die because this type of notion of the parents. Accordingly, swamiji has advised the parents to beware of such selfish & money minded people.

All such type of shortcomings generate because of lack of proper education. Education aims at removing unknowledge (lack of knowledge) from the society. As such, swamiji has written that it is the duty of the ruler to arrange for proper education of the children and the parents, who do not make necessary provisions for education of their children should be penalized.

In the view of the swamiji, education of sons and daughters should be same.



- Child, whose parents are religious is very fortunate.

-All the celestial bodies including the Sun etc. are non-living like this Earth. These cannot do anything except giving light etc.

-‘Janam (birth)-patr (paper)’ should be named as ‘shok (grief)-patr’. Because when a child takes birth, every one becomes happy but this happiness gets converted into grief on listening about the effects of celestial bodies on the future of the child based on his ‘janam-patr’.

-Can anybody save one from death, laws of God and principles of ‘karmphal’ philosophy?

-The teachers & parents, who scold, criticise & beat their children or pupils for their betterment are actually their well-wishers in the true sense and the teachers & parents, who yield to all the demands of their children & pupils out of attachment destroy their future.

-To make their children physically & mentally strong, to make them good citizens and to educate them well is the only duty & dharm of parents.

-Parents & teachers should always give their children & pupils truthful teachings only. They should also advise them to imbibe their truthful qualities & behaviour and at the same time discard their untruthful qualities & behaviour.



In this chapter, swamiji mentioned the sequence in which education should be imparted. Vedas divide lifespan of man (assuming life of man to be 100 years) into four parts-each part consisting of 25 years. In the first part of life i.e, up to 25 years of life, called as ‘brahamcharya ashram’, one should concentrate wholly on obtaining education, generally of spirituality and specifically of the field, in which one wants to go in the future. Swamiji has a given an exhaustive list of the books, studying of which should be avoided. Instead of vedas, those books of Sanskrit were taught to the children, which were full of untruth. Considering education to be a great mean to achieve the ultimate goal, swamiji has advised that one should leave or be indifferent to the books, which contain unnecessary information.

In those times, only those children, whose parents were financially weak enough to afford English schools, were sent to Sanskrit schools with the main objective of getting free food & books. Why to expect increase of pride of Sanskrit from such students? Sanskrit was considered a dead language. It did not have any relation with the day to day life of people. Scholars of Sanskrit language were considered fools. Such sort of mentality among people helped western cultures to get established in India and Indian youth, because of absence of knowledge of vedic culture, became mental slaves of western cultures, which, soon, gripped their bodies too.

In this chapter, swamiji tried to break these shackles and showed the greatness of vedic culture. It should not be considered that swamiji was against modern inventions but he told the people that inventions of ‘Aryas’ were really great. Today, people are proud of their learnedness and consider ancient cultures to be backward. Swamiji changed this thinking and established that ancient vedic culture was not a thing to be looked down upon. There is a mention of aeroplanes, ships etc. in ancient Indian literature. Swamiji was of the view that individual’s mental development is the base of his all sorts of developments. As such, he laid great emphasis on education.


-It is the main task of the parents, teachers & relatives to make their children wear the ornaments of true education.

-As the impurities of elements like gold etc. are destroyed by fire, in the same way, impurities of ‘Man’ & senses are destroyed by the practice of ‘pranayam’ (grossly, pranayam may be referred to breathing exercises).

-To study the books written by rishis is like finding valuable pearls in each dive.

-We should study the books written by rishis for the reason that these person were very learned, knowledgeable and soul-realisers.

-A person, who does not believe in vedas, is called atheist.

-If a man or woman is learned but his / her spouse is unkowledgeable, then there can never be happiness between them.

-It is the duty of the king to see that every boy and girl of his kingdom follows the rules of brahamcharya and gets true education.

-Out of donation of the items like food, water, clothing, gold, pearls etc., the donation of knowledge of vedas is supreme.

-‘Yam’ is divided into five parts, namely, ‘ahinsa’ (leaving ill-will), ‘satya’ (to think, speak & act truthfully), ‘astey’ (not to sreal through ‘Man’ or senses), ‘brahamcharya’ (control of sexual senses), & ‘aprigrah (not to pile up things)

-‘Niyam’, also, is divided into five parts, namely, shouch (physical & mental cleanliness), ‘santosh’ (contentment), ‘tap’ (cheerfully bearing the problems coming on the path of righteousness), ‘swadhaya’ (study of both spiritual and physical sciences) & ‘ishwarpranidhan’ (surrendering every possession & every act to God).   

-One, who follows ‘niyam’ leaving the practice of all the parts of ‘yam’, cannot progress.



In this chapter, swamiji has given education regarding second part of life i.e, from 25 years to 50 years, called as ‘grihasatha ashram’ (married life). He has talked of the duties of the persons entering this ashram. As we have been brought up by our parents, in the same way, we, too, are indebted to take care of our children. We are duty bound, on coming of our turn, to give the society the best of our heirs as its members. Children act as a link between past and future. The best way to make a good future is to fill all the best qualities of our forefathers into our children.

At the time of swamiji, the institution of marriage had deformed a lot. Even the children of 3-4 years used to get married. Because of high mortality rate among children, the number of children, whose spouses had met with death, ran into crores. Such a practice affected not only the lives of these children but also the social health. Swamiji established through the evidences of vedas that marriage of children is a sin. The Hindus had the notion that the parents, who do not marry their daughters before the age of 12 years go to hell. Swamiji was very much against this practice. He advised that men before the age of 25 years and women before the age of 16 years should not be married. With certain conditions, he favoured the remarriages of men and women, whose spouses have died.


-If ‘in laws’ of a person reside at a far off place, then, it is better.

-For women, period between 16-24 years of age is good for marriage. For men, period between 25-48 years of age is good for marriage.

-In a family, where wife from her husband and husband from his wife remain happy, pleasure and peace stay forever.

-It is written in vedas that ‘brahmanas’ (highest category in a society) should marry only once.

-If there is no practice of marriage, then all the values of married life will get destroyed.

-Whosoever, speaks ill of married life, should be disrespected and whosoever, speaks well of married life, should be respected.

-It is good, if men and women choose their life-partners on their own. If marriage is arranged by the parents, even then, it should not be against the willingness or happiness of the concerned men and women. This way, minimum opposition is met and better children take birth.

-Out of the people, who have taken birth in a high category of the society, only those people should be considered in the high category, who behave with knowledge and detachment and those, who have taken birth in a lower category but act with knowledge and detachment should, also, be placed in the high category. Accordingly, if a person, who has taken birth in a high category of the society, acts or behaves with unknowledge and attachment should be considered in the lower category.



As per vedic varn system, the society is categorized into four segments namely brahamanas, kshatriyas, vaishayas, & shudras depending upon interests of its members. After categorizing the society as per varn system, vedas divided the life-span of man (assuming life-span of man to be hundred years) into four segments, called ashrams, of 25 years each namely, brahamcharya (in the first 25 years of life, everyone is required to obtain knowledge of God, soul & prakriti in general and specifically of the occupation he intends to carry in his later years), grihastha (from 25 years to 50 years of life, the persons eligible for marriage are required to lead a married life), vanprastha (after 50 years one is required to go to the forests and lead a life of non-attachment till the time, he is ready to go in the next ashram) & sanyas (The persons of this segment are required to dedicate rest of their lives in the quest of God). In this chapter, swamiji has mentioned about the duties of vanprastha ashram & sanyas ashram. No doubt, life of man is wrapped in attachment of world. Without this attachment, worldly affairs cannot exist. For development, man should have attachment but not attachment in isolation but attachment with knowledge. Grossly, we can say that generation of sacrificing spirit refers to generation of development of ‘attachment with knowledge’. In sanyas ashram, the sacrificing spirit reaches its peak. To run the world, both attachment and sacrificing spirit are needed i.e. in other words, we can say that our attachment with the world should not be such, which can force us to cling with the world. The presence of sacrificing spirit enables man not to have grief over death. In vanprastha ashram, one leaves his home and almost ends his family relations. Leaving home etc. are some of the methods for enhancing the sacrificing spirit.

            Certain wrong notions exist among the people in respect of these ashramas. Some people believe that all the persons should move from one ashram to the next in accordance with age. But these ashramas are like educational classes. As one is not authorised to move in the higher class until & unless, he has passed his lower class, in the same way one should not move in the higher ashram without getting eligibility for entering in that ashram. First ashram i.e. brahamcharya ashram is necessary for everyone. In the next ashram i.e. grihastha ashram, only those persons should enter, who are eligible to marry. In the next ashram i.e. vanprastha ashram, only those persons, who have been successful in learning the sacrificing spirit in the previous ashram. In vanprastha ashram, learning of this sacrificing spirit is improved further. In sanyas ashram, only those persons should enter, who have successfully developed in them the feeling of detachment in their previous ashramas. Some people raise the question that when grihastha ashram is an ashram for enjoyment of worldly affairs, then how can it be the preparation ground for vanprastha ashram i.e. sacrifice- ashram. Actually, there are lots of opportunities for development of sacrificing spirit in grihastha ashram. When one marries, he divides all his possessions with his wife. On begetting children, he shares his possessions with his children also. In vanprastha ashram, whole of the efforts are for improving this sacrificing spirit.

            Only that person should enter in sanyas ashram, who considers whole of this world as his family. He is concerned about the whole of the world & directs all his actions for the welfare of the whole universe. As it is a very difficult ashram, all are not allowed to enter it. Only the brahamanas should go in this ashram. Here, brahamanas mean the persons, who are very learned & whose behaviour is rich in ethics. Sanyasis (persons, who have moved into sanyas ashram) are equivalent to teachers. As in a school, the number of teachers is very less than the number of students, in the same way in a society, the number of sanyasis should be very less. It is seen that in a society, where the number of sanyasis is proportionately more, this condition becomes the reason of more unknowledge among sanyasis. As grihasthis (persons, who have moved into grihastha ashram) are duty bound to fulfil all the bodily requirements of sanyasis, sanyasis in such a condition lose their respect among grihasthis. These days, many criminals adopt the disguise of sanyasis in order to be at large from law. Also, many sanyasis are in the habit of taking drugs.     


-The day, one gets the feeling of detachment in his mind, he should enter into sanyas ashram.

-One, who has not left bad behaviour, whose ‘Man’ is not at peace & who has not accepted the path of ‘yog’, cannot realise God even after entering sanyas ashram.

-Only that person, who is the greatest among the all the varnas or in other words only that person, who is learned, religious & thinks of the welfares of all is eligible to be a sanyasi.

-If a non-eligible person enters sanyas ashram, then not only he himself goes into darkness but also takes others alonwith him.

-Sanyasi is one, who inspires others to move on the path of righteousness by himself moving on that path.

 -One, who cannot leave sensual pleasures should not enter into sanyas ashram, but why should not one, who can control his senses, enter into sanyas ashram?



In this chapter, swamiji has talked about the correct way of ‘ruling’ over a state. In the world, we find many types of rulings. At one place, king’s powers are limited, at another place, there is no king at all, still at some other places, the king has unlimited powers. Swamiji is in favour of a system, where powers of a king are limited by ‘dharm’. He cannot do whatever he wants. In this system, the ‘ruler’ is controlled by the ‘ruled’ and the ‘ruled’ are controlled by the ‘ruler’. For an ideal ‘rule’, swamiji has talked of three types of assemblies. Swamiji is of the view that ‘ruled’ is able to control the ‘ruler’ to the extent of his knowledge i.e. higher is the level of knowledge of the ‘ruled’, the better is the control over the ‘ruler’.


-‘Ruled’ follow the ‘ruler’. As such, the ruler and the concerned bureaucrats should never do any type of bad behaviour. But they should set examples to be followed by the ‘ruled’ by behaving perfectly in accordance with ‘dharm’.

-A kingdom progresses as long as its members behave in accordance with ‘dharm’ and it gets destroyed on becoming of its members unjust or unethical.



In this chapter, swamiji has mentioned about the attributes of God and the way of providing knowledge to mankind by God through vedas. Since, a thing is known by its attributes, only if there is unanimous understanding of the attributes of a thing, same meaning can be drawn from the name of that thing. But, in case of God, people fail to accept this rule. In almost all the religions of today existence of God is believed but, there happens to be no unanimity as to the attributes of God. In the absence of unanimity of the qualities or characteristics of God, the belief in God becomes meaningless and it has led to quarrels in religious forums. Swamiji, in this chapter, has clarified as to who are gods? , what do they mean? & what is the difference between gods & God? He believes God to be formless. In this respect, his view is different from that of all other sects. He has clearly mentioned that if God is accepted with a form, then a lot of difficulties will arise and it would be impossible to resolve them. Attributes of a formless thing can never appear in a thing with a form. The attribute of omnipresence could be there in God only if, He is considered formless. If God is accepted with a form, then His presence will have to be accepted at one particular place. Here, in this chapter, swamiji has resolved many issues concerning God. He has answered the questions like-is God with a form or formless? , is God all-powerful or not? , is God all-pervasive i.e. omnipresent or lives at a particular place? , can God assume form? , can any change occur in God? , is God kind or just or both?. Swamiji established through mantras of vedas that God is formless, unchangeable, without body, eternal & kind.

Today, poranic Hindus believe in incarnation of God. Swamiji has mentioned that by believing in incarnation of God, we have to accept that God, too, suffers all sorts of pains like souls. Moreover, why should God take birth? In poranic literature, we find the stories, wherein it has been shown that God had to take birth in a human body to do a certain task like killing of some bad person. Swamiji has established that when God is the creator of bodies of all persons, then He is more powerful than such persons. When He can create their bodies without taking birth, then why can He not destroy those bodies without taking birth?

Swamiji considers vedas to be words of God. In this chapter, swamiji has answered many queries regarding vedas like-what is ved? , when & how did they come into light? , how could non-giving of knowledge by God through vedas been unjust? , are they lighted every time on creation of universe? , who were bestowed with the vedas in the beginning? , why only particular persons leaving the others were bestowed with this knowledge? Though in poranic dharm, there is great respect for vedas but in their belief, all the Upanishads, all the Purans, Ramayan, Mahabharat etc. too are called vedas but swamiji mentioned that only the books named, Rigved, Yajurved, Atharv Ved & Samved are vedas.


-God is the most superior of all the gods for the reason that He is the creator, maintainer, destroyer, justice-doer and master of this whole universe.

-If God lives at one place, He cannot be omniscient, all-pervasive, creator, maintainer and destroyer of the universe.

-God is formless. Had He been with form, He would not have been omnipresent. Had He not been omnipresent, He would not have been omniscient.

-Praising God develops love for Him and inspires man to make his nature like God. Praying develops a feeling that there is a higher entity than souls. It generates enthusiasm and a feeling that there is a helper. Communion realises God.

-Knowing refers to understanding the things as they are.

-An uncivilized person cannot become learned on his own but can become learned on having a teacher. In the same way, if God had not taught the rishis, in the beginning of the universe and rishis had not further taught the same to their pupils, then man would have remained unknowledgeable.



In this chapter, swamiji has resolved a very philosophical question, which is not even mentioned in many sects. The question is- is God only the existent entity or are there other entities too, in addition to God? If, it is said that besides God, no other entity exists, then what to say of the things, which we experience in our day to day life. For example, is our own existence imaginary? If, it is taken to be true, then, without real existence how could our imaginary existence become possible and if our existence is imaginary, then what is the need of ‘dharm’? If there is only one entity named God, then the other entities must have originated from God or from nothing?

The concept of creation of the Suns, the Earth, other celestial bodies, air etc. out of nothing is very illogical. We cannot think of a tree without a seed, bread without flour etc. Even today, there are many things like clouds, minerals etc., which are made by God but all these things do not come out of nothing, though we are not able to see the things out of which, they are made. This way, we see in the world that every effect has a cause or reason. If we consider that other entities have originated from God, then, there is no logical answer as to why the other entities were created or what was the cause of their creation? If we consider God to be able to do anything i.e. creation of effect without a cause, then such a God happens to be a bundle of weaknesses.

In this chapter, swamiji has resolved the issues like what is this universe, why was the universe created, what is the end result of this universe etc.? If, we do not answer these questions, then we cannot justify the attributes of God. If an atheist asks for evidence of existence of God, then in an answer to this question, one will say that existence of God gets automatically proved by creation of universe. It is similar to the advocation that without carpenter, chair cannot be thought of. If entity of God would have been imaginary, then, how could existence of this universe been real.

Existence of universe is not imaginary but is very real. It has not been created accidentally. Actually, we use the word ‘accidental’, where we are unable to explain something. There are living as well as non-living things in the universe. Above, we have established that living things i.e. souls cannot be created by God. As for as, non-living things are considered, they are neither created by God nor by souls. When the word ‘creation’ is used with respect to this universe, then actually we mean ‘transformation’. By creation of world, we mean manifestation in the current form of previously present nature.  Matter or prakriti or nature is eternal. Manifestation of prakriti is called ‘creation of universe’ and non-manifestation of prakriti is called ‘dissolution of universe’

It is not one time act of God as is considered in other religions or sects. There is an unending chain of creation of universe and its dissolution. In other words, it is also said that flow of prakriti or nature is eternal. There is a definite purpose behind creation of universe and this purpose is welfare of souls.

Now, the question arises as to how it is possible that controller (God) as well as controlled (souls & prakriti) are beginningless & endless. ‘Controlling’ is in no way connected with ‘beginninglessness & endlessness’. The terms ‘beginningless & endless’ refer only to time. For ‘controlling’, two other things namely, power and knowledge are needed. Less powerful and less knowledgeable are controlled by more powerful and more knowledgeable. God is very very knowledgeable and very very powerful than souls and in this sense He is said to be ‘controller’ of souls. As regards prakriti or nature, it is completely knowledgeless and as such, it is partially controlled by souls and fully controlled by God.

Existence of everything refers to time, place and certain characteristics, it owns. As mentioned earlier, the terms ‘beginningless & endless’ refer only to time and not to characteristics. When we say that a tree exists, it automatically means that it exists in a particular period of time & at a particular place. A thing, which exists at no point of time & at no place is considered to be non-existent.

Prakriti and souls are objects of the act of ‘creation’ and not means of ‘creation’. This universe is created by God’s personal power. Prakriti is not anything outside God. As such, by accepting prakriti & souls to be beginningless & endless, God in no way becomes dependent on these (prakriti & souls). If we say that ‘A’ eats bread by his teeth, then ‘A’ is dependent on the teeth not on the bread, which is an ‘object’ of ‘A’s’ action.


 -As natural characteristic of eyes is to see, similarly, God’s natural characteristic is to create world for providing innumerable things to souls for their welfare.

-As it is impossible to have vegetation without earth, to have rainfall without clouds etc., in the same way it is impossible to have effect without cause.

-The reason of making of a thing is said to be its ‘cause’, a thing, which is so produced is said to be the ‘effect’ and the thing responsible for bringing the change from ‘cause’ to ‘effect’ is called the ‘doer’.



In this chapter, swamiji has explained ‘bondage’ and ‘freedom from this bondage or mukti’.

All the religions claim that one can be free from the bondage of birth & death by following their principles but these religions do not clearly mention as to what ‘mukti’ is. Generally, there is a notion that the persons, who attain ‘mukti’, go to heaven, and the persons, who do not attain ‘mukti’ go to a place called hell. In heaven which is a place separate from the place, where we live in, there is no pain & everything becomes available without any effort. Similarly, hell is a place, where the inhabitants have to undergo very very painful living. First of all, swamiji has mentioned that heaven & hell are not geographical places. He says that heaven is enjoyment of worldly pleasures and likewise hell is suffering from worldly pains. In every worldly pleasure, there is an element of pain, inherent in that pleasure and in every pain, there is some element of pleasure. But ‘mukti’ is such a condition, where there is no scope for any sort of pain. Whole of this thing can be understood through an example. There are three states of existence---awake-stage, dream-stage and dormant-stage. In the awake-stage, we enjoy both worldly pleasures and worldly pains as pleasure received from eating sweets and pain received from diseases. In the dream-stage, we are not directly linked with worldly objects but we enjoy pleasure & pain in this state because of memory. But in the dormant-stage, we enjoy pleasure only, without any shadow of pain. For example, after taking a deep sleep, we say that we have enjoyed the sleep. This pleasure is enjoyed by birds and animals too but for a short span of time i.e. during deep-sleep only. This pleasure is similar to that of ‘mukti’. This pleasure is not only absence of griefs but also has an existence of its own. ‘Mukti’ is not a miracle of any kind. All the prevalent religions have provided shortcuts for attaining ‘mukti’ instantaneously. Development of soul is very gradual. Leaving bad habits, acquiring good habits, going into appropriate environment & avoiding bad environment cannot be accomplished in a short span of time. This can be realized by taking the example of one’s own self. Even acquiring a little knowledge takes a lot of time & effort. A well-known modern scientist, Newton said, “Standing on the shore of a sea, I kept collecting the shells, whereas ocean of knowledge was in front of me but I could not have a dip in that”. Greatest knowledge of a learned fellow is the realization that he does not know anything. In these conditions, for attaining ‘mukti’ a number of human-births are required. For attaining ‘mukti’, one is required to clean various blots of his life, which have stained it from time to time, besides avoiding further blots. In this sequence, principle of rebirth, too, has been discussed.  


-As cutting of root destroys a tree, in the same way, leaving sins destroys griefs.



In this chapter, swamiji has discussed general behaviour of man like what should be eaten, what should not be eaten, how one should behave with others etc. In this chapter, there is a mention of generally those bad habits, which were prevalent in Hindu society in that time. This chapter does not deal with any deep philosophical issues but many bad traditions have been talked of. Swamiji has mentioned that only healthy things should be eaten. Unhealthy things earned through rightful means and healthy things earned by unrighteous means should not be eaten. Taking of meat, whisky etc. have been discussed. In those times, Hindus used not to go in foreign countries for business etc. because of the notion that if Hindus take food, cooked by non-Hindus, they fall from their religion. Swamiji has mentioned that such a notion is wrong. He cited that history evidences that in olden times ‘aryas’ used to go to other countries for businesses. The only thing to be taken care of is cleanliness.


-It is wrong to say that Hindus (natives of Aryavartta) fall from their religion by going to other countries. If ethics like speaking the truth etc. are followed, then one does not fall from his religion, wherever he may stay but if ethics are not followed,then, one does fall from his 'dharm'  even while being in this country.

Generally, swamiji is criticised for speaking against other religions but in the first section of his book consisting of ten chapters, he has done nothing but shown the true ‘swaroop’ (nature) of vedic religion. Sects, prevalent in those times had covered the truth of vedic religion. As such, it became essential to talk of them too. The analytical criticism of other religions prevalent in Aryavartta has been done in the second section of this book, which comprises four chapters only.



In this chapter, swamiji has criticised various sects developed in Aryavartta, which call themselves as Hindus. Because of existence of opposite beliefs in Hinduism, it is very difficult to define it. A person, who believes in God, vedas, castes, idol-worship is Hindu and a person, who does not believe in God, vedas, castes, idol-worship is also called Hindu. This happens because of non-knowledge of the basic concepts of Hinduism. In the first ten chapters, swamiji explained these basic concepts of Hinduism, enshrined in vedas. Here, swamiji discussed the beliefs prevalent in Hindus on the ground, which is the real base of Hinduism. For his purpose, he divided the Hindus on the basis of notions, prevalent in them.

  1. There is a notion among certain Hindus that ‘dharm’ changes with the period i.e. a practice, which was said to be dharm in 'satyug' (time is divided in satyug, tretayug, dwaperyug and kalyug) is not dharm in 'kalyug'. Swamiji says that dharm, which are practices like speaking the truth, doing service to the needy, avoiding bad habits etc. cannot be dependent on time and place and accordingly, what was dharm in 'satyug' will remain dharm in 'tretayug', 'dwaperyug' and 'kalyug' also.
  2. Incarnation- Swamiji establishes that God is formless, changeless & without a body. In support of his view, he has given word-evidences of vedas. Some people believe that since God is all powerful, he may or may not assume form or body. This notion has developed for not understanding the actual meaning of the term ‘all-powerful’. Changefulness of a thing is a mark of its weakness. If a thing changes for some internal reasons, then we will have to accept that there is some sort of weakness or incompleteness in that thing, because of which ‘change’ became necessary. If the change is for some external reasons, then we will have to accept that there is some external entity, which is more powerful than that thing.
  3. Idol-worship-As God is formless, there cannot be any picture, sculpture etc. of God. Idols of gods are totally imaginary and came into existence for not understanding the meaning of ‘gods’.
  4. ‘Peers’ & Graves-In various times, there existed many sacred souls (called ‘Peers’ in Islam), who spread morals among people and saved the people from many bad habits & tendencies but after death of these great souls, people started worshipping their graves or memorials (smadhis). Many sects originated in the names of these great souls.
  5. Brahamosmaj-Followers of Brahamosmaj were generally literate persons but they did not have any respect for this country & its culture. This organisation piled up good principles of many religions and prepared a bunch of flowers. Swamiji was against such a thought pattern. Flowers of the bouquet are plucked from their plants, finishing the very relationship of theirs with the roots. Swamiji was in favour of accepting the flowers with their respective roots only.
  6. Nationalism- Swamiji considered gratefulness to be the base of dharm. A person, who is not grateful to his nation and does not serve his motherland cannot be expected to serve the universe. Service to the motherland is a definite step towards service of the world.
  7. History of India-There is a general notion among certain people that India has always been ruled by foreigners or foreign countries. But in the end of this chapter, swamiji proved this notion wrong by giving a long history mentioning the names of the kings & period of their ‘rules’.



In this chapter, swamiji has criticised three more religions, which developed in Aryavartta like Hindu religion, but, which are not counted in Hindu religion. Out of them, one is Charvak. Charvak’s beliefs are-there is no God, there is no need of accepting God & life originate in this universe by mixing of one element with the other. The followers of this religion believe that as alcohol produces sedative effect, in the same way, when different elements of prakriti combine with one another, life originates. These people, although very less in numbers do not believe in souls & God. They are of the view that as long as one lives, he should arrange for maximum of his pleasures in one way or the other, since, after death, one loses his existence forever. This can be called atheism.

Morals need a strong base like existence of souls & God. It is a fact that simple day to day affairs cannot be accomplished without a certain degree of ethics. All the worldly affairs will come to a halt if people behave untruthfully in their matters. For example, let’s consider a case of hiring a rickshaw. In this simple case of our day to day affair, hire charges fixed are adhered to by both the parties without any hitch. These simple ethics are nothing but a part of dharm. As such, we can say that individuals cannot live without accepting the existence of God. 

2          Bodh Religion- This religion does not believe in God and His words. Though, this religion took birth on this land but today, the number of its followers in India is very less. In Myanmar, Thailand, China etc. we find the existence of this religion. As such, Swamiji has given only a glimpse of the principles of this religion.

3          Jain Religion-Both Bodh religion and Jain religion took birth in India almost at the same time. Like Bodh religion, this religion, too, does not believe in God and His words. This religion has not moved out of this land like Bodh religion but its followers in India are very few. The followers of this religion do not make available their literature to the persons of other religions. The base of Jain religion is considered to be ‘Ahinsa’ (not bringing pain to anyone). Actually ‘ahinsa’ refers to not giving pain to others and also not allowing others to give pain to oneself. Vedic concept of ahinsa is creating an atmosphere, wherein no one intends to give pain to others. But punishing the guilty is not considered against ‘ahinsa’ in vedic culture. Taking incomplete meaning of the term ‘ahinsa’ has been one of the major causes of deterioration of Hindus. With respect to Jain religion, too, Swamiji has given only a glimpse of the principles of this religion. 



In these chapters, swamiji has criticised Islam and Christianity, which were not born in Aryavartta. For centuries, these religions have criticised vedic religion. Though, these religions could not secure much ground in India but their influence is evident in political & cultural fields. Unlike the followers of Bodh & Jain religions, the life style of the followers of these religions is very different from that of Indians. Christians used their political power and deceitfulness to convert Hindus in their religion. In this direction, they gained certain success in south India. But despite their herculean efforts, number of Christians in India is not too much.

            In thirteenth chapter, swamiji has criticised Islam and in fourteenth chapter, swamiji has criticised Christianity in a symbolic way. He has discussed certain portions of Bible and Kuran. The persons, who will compare the principles of these religions with that of vedic religion will be able to know the truth. Swamiji’s purpose was only to stop the flow of these religions and to provide the Hindus, the base of their own religion. He believed that only vedic dharm can meet the condition of trueness in all times & places. Swamiji wanted to throw light on many philosophical & non- philosophical principles of vedic dharm by writing this book so as to enable man to know the ultimate truth.

            In the end of this book, swamiji has written his beliefs and non-beliefs. A reader understands the book better, if he is able to know the ultimate views of the writer on the different concepts, discussed at large in the book.

-Thoughts of Gangaprasad Upadhaya


-Maharihi Swami Dayananda


(From ‘Light of Truth’ English translation of ‘Satyartha Prakash’ by Pt. Gangaprasad Upadhaya)

The Sanatana Dharma or Eternal Religion is that set of universal doctrines belonging to all countries and all men, which were accepted in the past, are being accepted in the present, and shall be accepted in future by everybody and which are impossible to go against. Wise men never confirm with anything promulgated by those who are ignorant or misled by the teachings of a particular faith. All persons should accept as their beliefs only those principles which are inculcated by men of profound learning (adepts), i.e. the persons who think the truth, speak the truth and do the truth and are philanthropic and impartial. Similarly, their disbelief should consist of those things which such persons reject as unworthy of acceptance. I declare before all right thinking people that I believe in all those things (god etc.) which are accepted by the Vedas and other true scriptures and which have been the beliefs of all persons from Brahma down to the sage Jaimini. My beliefs are only those, which should be uniformly acceptable to all men in all ages (past, present and future). I have no intention, whatsoever, to introduce a new thing or to found (begin) a new religion. My wish is to accept and to ask others to accept what is truth and to reject and to ask others to reject what is untruth. Had I been partial, I would have clung to anyone of the faiths prevalent in the Aryavartta. But, neither I accept the demerits of different faiths whether Indian or alien, nor reject what is good in them. In fact it does not behove a man to do so. Only he is entitled to be called ‘man’, who thinks and looks upon the happiness, unhappiness, loss and profit of other men as his own, who is not afraid of a strong man if he is unjust, and fears a virtuous man even though he is weak. Not only this, He should always try to support the case of the virtuous people even if they are helpless, weak and untalented, and to discourage, suppress and even destroy the vicious, even if he is the mightiest sovereign of the whole world and very clever. That is, he should spare no pains to make the vicious weak and the virtuous strong. To achieve this end, he should bear all sufferings and even sacrifice his life but he should not quit his duty. Here, I quote a few verses of Bhartrihari and others in the support of my statement:-

            Let diplomats condemn or praise; let prosperity come or go; let death come this very moment or after ages; the brave do not remove their steps from the path of justice.


            Righteousness should never be forsaken either through lust or fear or greed, even when there be chance of saving one’s life by forsaking it. Righteousness is permanent; pain and pleasure are fleeting. The soul is immortal while means of living are changeful.                                                                                                


            Virtue is the only friend as it accompanies one, even after death. All else is destroyed along with the body.


            Truth triumphs, not falsehood. The learned men always follow the path of truth. That is the highway of truth whereby, sages, who have left no desires unfulfilled, go.

            There is no religion greater than truth. There is no sin greater than falsehood. There is no knowledge better than truth. Therefore, man should follow truth.


            All persons should follow the saying of these great men.

Now, I briefly describe MY BELIEFS AND DISBELIEFS, the details of which have been discussed at length in this book (The book is named as ‘Satyath Prakash’; this book is written in Hindi and this is English translation of the words of Maharishi Swami Dayananda).

1. God. His names are Brahma, Paramatman etc. Existence, consciousness and bliss are His characteristics. His attributes, activities and nature are holy. He is omniscient, merciful, just, creator, maintainer and dissolver of the whole universe, the fruit –giver of the actions of all the souls with strict justice. This is my conception of God.

2. The Four Vedas. (Full of knowledge and virtue. God revealed, Samhita, i.e., only the mantra-portion) I regard them infallible and of primary authority. They are authority in themselves and do not depend upon other books for their authoritativeness, just as the Sun or a lamp is self-luminous as well as the light-giver of the earth etc.; so are the four Vedas.

The Brahmanas of the four Vedas, six angas (limbs), six upangas- (by-limbs), four upavedas  (auxiliary Vedas) and 1,127 Vedic branches (offshoots) are the lectures or compositions of the sages such as Brahma, on the basis of the teachings of the Vedas. I look upon them as secondary authority. That is, they are reliable only so far as they are consistent with the Vedas. I do not accept the authority of any passage in them which might be against the Vedas.

3. Righteousness (Dharma) is the name of unprejudiced, just way of living, (e.g., truthfulness) which might not be against the order of God and the Vedas. Similarly, unrighteousness (adharma) is prejudiced and unjust way of living (e.g., falsehood), disobedience of God and insurgence against the Vedas.

4. The soul is a finite and eternal entity (uncreated and immortal) whose attributes are desire, aversion, pleasure, knowledge (consciousness) etc.

5. The soul and God are distinct in their nature and characteristics. But, they are one through the relation of pervasion and similarity. Just as corporeal substance was never separable, nor is separable, nor shall ever be separable from ether; and yet it never was, nor is, nor shall be identical with it; similarly God is the pervader, the soul the pervaded; God the worshipable, the soul worshipper; God the Father, the soul- the son etc., etc.

            Translator-Swami Dayananda is against the doctrine that the soul is identical with Brahma or can attain to Brahma-hood after salvation. The soul was never God, nor can it ever be God. The soul is the worshipper and God is the object of worship. The soul is the son and God- the Father. Distinct and yet related and inseparable - this is Swami Dayanand’s conception of soul and God. He is against Shankaracharya’s doctrine of the identity of the soul and God as against Ramanuja’s doctrine that the soul is only a mode of God.

6. There are three beiginningless (uncreated) categories- God, the souls, material radica (or the root-cause of the universe). They are three eternals. The attributes, functions and nature of the eternals are also eternal.

7. Cyclic Eternality. The substance, quality or action produced by conjunction cease to exist after disjunction. But, the 'potentiality of the objects', which are brought about this conjunction is eternal in them. It means that these objects will again conjoin and disjoin. I believe in cyclic eternality of these.

8. Creation means the organized conjunction of separate substances into various forms.

9. The purpose of creation is the realization of God’s creative attributes, functions, and nature. Suppose, one asks, “what is the eye for?” The answer is, “For seeing”. Similarly God’s creative power finds its fulfillment in the creation of the universe. The enjoyment by the souls of the fruits of their actions is also its object.

Translator-Swami Dayananda here meets two objections:

            (1) Why does God bother with the creation of the world?

            (2) What is the good of creating the world?


10. The universe has a creator. The creator is the above-described God. It is quite evident from the design of the creation. The inert substances have no power to come intelligently together and produce desired substance such as seed etc. This shows that there must be some creator of the universe.

11. Bondage is due to some cause. That is, ignorance has some cause. Sinful actions, worship of objects other than God, ignorance etc. etc., are the things which are productive of pain. They are called 'bondage’ because we have to suffer against our will.

12. Emancipation is the release from all sorts of pain, an unrestricted movement in all-pervading God and His universe. The enjoyment of the bliss of salvation is limited to a fixed period of time. The released soul has again to come into the universe after expiry of that period.

            Translator-Swami Dayananda does not agree with the teachers of other religions, who say that once released is forever released. Their motto is that what begins must come to an end. Only beiginningless things are endless. There is no such thing as one-banked river. The salvation begins. Therefore, it must end too.


13. The means of salvation are God’s Communion, i.e. practice of Yoga, righteous living, acquisition of knowledge with Brahmacharya (sexual purity),  the association with men of learning, true knowledge, right thinking, and labour.

14. Artha Prosperity is that which is acquired by righteousness. That which is got by evil ways is anartha (undesirable).

15. Kama (happiness) is a production of righteousness and prosperity.

16. I believe in the varnas and ashramas (four classes of the human society and four stages of a man’s life) on the basis of the capacity to acquire certain qualifications and to perform certain actions.

17. The Raja (literally the shining one) or king is the one, who shines by virtue of his noble qualities, noble actions and noble disposition, who administers justice without any prejudice, who treats the subjects like a father, and who is ever engaged in the effort to improve the condition and increase the happiness of the people, as father does of his children.

18. The Praja (or subjects) is that populace, which equips itself with noble qualifications, noble actions and noble temperaments; which follows the just rules of conduct without any prejudice, which looks to the welfare of the king and the country, which is free from rebellious tendencies and looks upon the ruler like a son to his father.

19. He is a Judge who, after due thinking, abandons the untruth and embraces the truth, who suppresses the unjust, and upholds, the just; and who aims at the welfare of all as of his own. This is my conception of a “judge” (or administrator of Justice).

Translator-   I have translated, the word ‘Nyayakari’ as ‘Judge’ and not ‘Just’ as to me it appears that the author had in mind the person who administers justice. Item No. 17 is the ‘ruler’; Item No. 18 is ‘the ruled’. Therefore, item No. 19 is obviously the Judge.

20. I understand by the term deva, men of learning; by asura the uneducated; by rakshasa the sinners; and by pishacha the unclean.

Translator- It refutes the commonplace belief that the devas (gods), the asuras (anti gods), the rakshasas (demons) and the pishachas (genii) are superhuman beings.

21. Deva-puja is according to my beliefs the reverence shown to men of learning, mother, father, preceptor, guest, just ruler, virtuous people, a wife loyal to her husband, and a husband true to his wife. Anything contrary to this is the worship of anti-gods. The person of the aforesaid is worthy of homage (reverence) and the insentient idols are altogether unworthy of worship.

Translator- Condemns idolatory of all types and holds noble men superior to idols.

22. Instruction is that which is conducive to learning, civility, righteousness, and sense-control and which frees men from the blemish of ignorance etc.

23. The puranas. The books called Brahmanas such as Aitareya etc. which are composed by Brahma etc.  I call Puranas (ancient lores), Itihasa (tradition), Kalpa (Ceremonials), Gatha (history), Narasansi (biographical treaties). I do not consider the Bhagavata (and other so called 18 Puranas) as true Puranas.

24. Tirtha (literally ford) is that which helps in crossing the ocean of misery. It consists of all good actions such as truthfulness, learning, goods company, the practice of the eight stages of Yoga such as Yama, diligence, promulgation of education etc. I do not look upon pieces of water or places of pilgrimage as tirthas.

Translator- it refutes the belief that visits paid to sacred places such as Jagannatha Puri or bath in scared rivers or tanks, e.g., the Ganges or Pushkara are means of salvation. Moral life and not rituals or superstitions, is the means of salvation. It upholds the sovereignty of moral living over meaningless conventions.

25. Purushartha – Effort is superior to destiny (or fate) because it is effort that determines destiny. An effort well-made leads to success and lack of effort spoils everything. Therefore, effort is superior to destiny.

Translator- It denounces the fatalism of the Hindus

26. I regard that ‘man’ as excellent who treats all persons like his own self at the time of happiness, sorrow, loss or profit according to their rank and position. Contrary to this is bad.

27. Samsakara (literally purification, technically purificatory ceremonies) is that which improves the condition of the body, the mind and the soul. There are sixteen samskaras beginning with niseka (impregnation) and ending in the cremation of the dead body. It is everybody’s duty to perform these samskaras. But, nothing should be done for the dead after cremation.

Translator- This refers the ceremonials done for the well-being of the dead souls manes.

28. Yajna is a term covering all the actions done for showing reverence to the men of learning, all scientific inventions and their application , all chemical processes, all educational activities and charities, all performances of Agnihotra, Homa etc., for the purification of air, rain, water, herbs, etc., for increase of human happiness, I regard Yajnas as excellent things.

Translator- it refutes two extreme views:-

(1) Homa etc. are useless ceremonials and should be given up.

(2) Homa etc. are the alpha and omega of religion and salvation depends exclusively on them. S. Dayananda means that the word yajna means all good action.

29. Arya means the excellent man. Dasyu means a wicked man. I take these words in this sense only.

Translator- it refutes the prevalent belief that ‘Aryas’ were a particular race or tribe who conquered the aborigines and named them ‘dasyus’ (slaves). S. D. holds that all goods men, of whatever race, tribe or country, are ‘aryas’ and all wicked men are dasyus.

30. Aryavartta is the name of the country (India) because the Aryas have been living here from the beginning of the universe. It is bounded on the north by the Himalayas,  on the south by the Vindhya, on the west by the river Ataka and on the east by the river Brahamputra. The country lying within these boundaries is called the Aryavarta and its permanent inhabitants are known as Aryas.

Translator- Based on ancient geography.

31. The Acharya (preceptor is he, who is the teacher of the Vedic lore with all its auxiliaries, who helps in living a right way of life and forsaking the wrong way.

32. A Sishya- pupil (or disciple) is he, who is capable of receiving a true instruction and knowledge, who is righteous, who has love for acquisition of knowledge, and who behaves to the satisfaction of the preceptor.

33. The word guru is applicable to mother and father. He  is also called guru  who helps in embracing truth and renouncing untruth.

34. Purohita (Priest) is he, who is the well wisher of the sacrificer and preacher of truth.

Translator- Yajna or sacrifice according to Swmi Dayanand, does not convey the idea of slaughtering an animal at the altar of a god. Sacrifice means “Homa’ and sacrificer is the householder who invites the priest to perform ‘Homa’ at his house.

35. Upadhyaya  is he, who teaches any branch of the Vedas.

36. Sishtacara (Culturedness) consists of the acceptance of truth and abandonment of untruth after righteously  having practiced Bramacharya and studied and ascertained what is truth and what is untruth with the help of the eight proofs (perception, etc.). Those, who follow this are called Sishtas or gentlemen (cultured).

Translator- Shista means the chosen, Achara means conduct.

Shistachara, therefore, means the conduct of the selected few. Ordinarily, the words used in the sense of gentlemanliness or even etiquette.

Swami Dayanand mentions the basis of etiquettes as distinguished from the mere form.

37. I accept  the validity of eight proofs, e.g. perception etc.

38. Apta (adept) is he, who speaks the correct thing, is righteous and tries for the well being of all.

39. Examination is of five kinds. Firstly, compatibility with the attributes, functions and nature of God and the Vedic science; secondly (conformability with one or all of) the eight proofs, perception etc.; thirdly, (in accordance with) the laws  of nature; fourthly, behaviour  of the adepts; fifthly the purity of one’s own self. These are five ways in which we can examine what truth is and what is untruth in order to accept truth and reject untruth.

40. Philanthropy or benevolence is that whereby ill conduct and miseries of men may be removed and good-conduct and happiness may be promulgated.

41. The soul is free in (doing) its actions but dependent on the law of God in the enjoyment of their fruit. Similarly, God is free in doing all righteous acts.

42. Svarga  (Heavan) is the enjoyment of special kind of happiness and the acquisition of the material, which is conducive to such happiness.

43. Narka (Hell) is the special kind of pain or the presence of that material, which produces that pain.

Translator- In common parlance “svarga’ means ‘heaven’ and ‘Narka’ means “hell’, i.e. two particular regions which contain extreme kinds of happiness and sufferings. In religious books. ‘Heaven’ has been depicted as a place where all sorts of enjoyments can be procured and ‘hell’ a place where horror reigns supreme. Swami Dayanand denounces the regional conception of heaven and hell. According to him. Svarga and narka are two conditions of the soul.

44. Birth is the coming of the soul into a corporeal body. It is of three kinds, previous birth, present birth and the next birth.

45. Birth is the conjunction of the soul with the body and death, their disjunction.

46. Marriage is the lawful and declared voluntary acceptance of the hand (of the woman by the man and of the man by the woman).

47. Niyoga is the act of procreation, allowed in special circumstances with a secondary husband or secondary wife, either, when one of the married couple dies or is rendered incapable of begetting children on account of impotency or incurable disease. A man is allowed to perform Niyoga with a woman of his own varna or higher varna and a woman with a man of her own varna or higher varna.

48. Stuti (appreciation) consists of describing, hearing or intuiting the qualities. Its aim is acquisition of knowing and devotion.

49. Prarthana (prayer) means asking God for a thing (which a soul can get from its connection with God) after one has tried one’s best. Its aim is freedom from pride etc.

50. Upasana (or communion) means to make one’s qualities, functions and temperaments pure by keeping in view the attributes, functions and nature of God as a model, to realize by means of Yoga, that- God is all-pervading. He is with us and we are with Him. Its aim is the progress of (spiritual) knowledge.

51. Saguna-nirguna stuti – Attributive and non-attributive appreciation means to say that such and such attributes there are in God and such and such attributes are not in God. Similarly, Saguna and Nirguna prarthana (attributive and non-attributive prayer) means to pray to God for the possession of certain qualities, and for the riddance of certain failings. Saguna and Nirguna upasana (attributive and non-attributive communion) means to look upon God as possesser of all good qualities and free from all blemishes and to surrender oneself altogether to  God and to His will.

This is a brief enumeration  of my personal beliefs. A fuller treatment of them has been given in this book (the Satyarathapraksha) under proper heads and also in the Rigvedadibhashyabhumika-“Commentary on the Rig and other Vedas.” and other books. Whatever is acceptable to all is also acceptable to me, e. g. everybody admits that truthfulness is a good thing. So do I. But I do not approve of the mutual differences that have sprung up between different religions. It is those different religions or different votaries who, by emphasizing differences have made man the enemy of man. I wish and I try that these differences may be removed. May the grace of Almighty God and cooperation of the men of learning and piety help in the promulgation of these principles on the whole of the globe, so that all persons may obtain the fourfold boon of righteousness, prosperity, happiness and salvation and may lead a happy and progressive life.

So much is sufficient for the wise.

            Translator- The English reader will find it difficult to understand the sense underlying the 51st belief. The words ‘saguna’ and ‘nirguna’ are very common in India and there is a good deal of misconception about them. Literally, Saguna means with attributes (Sa-with, guna=attributes and Nirguna means without attributes or empty of attributes (Nir-Not, guna-attributes). But in common parlance Saguna worship means corporeal and Nirguna incorporeal. Thus Saguna worship means the worship of incarnations of God through idols and Nirguna worship means the contemplation of God as an invisible and incorporeal being, Swami Dayananda controverts this view. He does not believe in the incarnations of God, he gives his own meanings to the words saguna and nirguna, which are more compatible with the etymological meanings of the words. The Sanskrit word ‘Guna’ never means body. You can conceive of an object as having certain attributes. This is saguna conception. For instance, water is cold or fluid. Here coldness and fluidity are two attributes which reside in water. You can also conceive of an object as devoid of certain attributes. This is nirguna conception. For instance, water is neither hot nor solid. Here, heat and solidity are two attributes which are denied in water. The complete appreciation of an object requires both saguna and nirguna (attributive and not-attributive) conception. For further explanation see chapter VII of the  book ‘Light of Truth’ English translation of ‘Satyartha Prakash’.



The main object of my writing this book is to elucidate true principles i.e. to declare as truth what is truth and to declare as untruth what is untruth. If truth is declared as untruth or untruth as truth, it does not mean elucidation of true principles. Truth lies in speaking, writing or believing in connection with a thing as it actually is. He, who is a bigot tries to express the demerits of his own faith as merits and merits of other faiths as demerits. Such persons cannot arrive at truth. It is, therefore, the chief duty of learned men to put before the public, through preaching or through writings, the real nature of truth and untruth. Then, they will themselves look to their interests and by accepting the truth and rejecting the untruth, live a happy life. The inner self of man is the knower of truth and untruth, but through selfishness, stubbornness, malevolence and ignorance, he leaves truth and inclines towards untruth.







----. It is always the context that determines the meaning of words. ----

----. Our position, therefore, is that a word may have several meanings; which meaning is to be understood at a particular place is to be decided by the context.


            Here, we have given a hundred names of God. But in addition to these, God has innumerable other names. Just as God has infinite attributes, infinite functions and infinite nature, so it has infinite names, each word signifying a particular aspect. What we have given here is only a drop in the ocean. The vedas and other Scriptures speak of God from innumerable viewpoints.


A book should be pervaded with truth from the beginning to the end-not that there is benediction at one place and malediction at another.


            The sages begin only with words Om or Atha----          


The vedas and other Scriptures never use ‘Hari’ in the beginning. We should also, therefore, use the words ‘Atha’ and ‘Om’.

Chapter – II



Now, we shall deal with upbringing of children.

--- a man becomes learned only when he has three proper instructors - the mother, the father and the preceptor. Blessed is that family, and most fortunate is that child whose mother and father are, equipped with righteousness and learning. From nowhere do children obtain better advice and more good than from the mother.


It is very essential for the mother and the father that before, during and after the conception, they should avoid the use of intoxicants, liquor, foul-smelling, dry and such substances as are injurious to mental development and should take only such things as contribute calmness, health, strength, wisdom, energy, civility and gentleness, e.g. clarified butter, milk, sweets and other useful substances of food and drink, so that the generative juices of the mother and the father be healthy and free from disease.


----. A woman should be strictly cautious about her food, clothing etc. after the conception. She should avoid the close contact of her husband for a year. She should use only such objects as are helpful to brain, strength, beauty, prowess and equipoise, up to the time the child is born.


----. The husband and wife who live up to these principles are sure to be blessed with excellent progeny, long life, and gradual progress in strength and valour and all their children will be the possessors of the best kind of strength, and valiance, long life and righteousness.


----. When they (children) begin to speak, the mother should contrive means that the tongue of the child may acquire flexibility to pronounce distinctly. The part of the mouth with which a sound is pronounced and the vital force with which the stress is put should be clearly marked. For instance, ‘p’ is a labial and and it is pronounced by the contact of both the lips. Similarly, short, long and prolated vowels should be duly pronounced, and the audibility, sweetness, depth, beauty, intonation, letter, syllable, word, sentence, syntax and punctuation be very distinct. When the children are able to express and grasp the words, they should be taught how to use refined language, how to talk properly with the elders, with those who are younger in age, with men of distinction, with father, mother, the king and learned men, how to treat them and how to associate with them. All this should be done in order that there might be no occasion for ill-behaviour and they might command due respect everywhere.

The parents should inculcate in the children the habit of self-restraint, love of learning and good company. Pernicious games, unnecessary weeping and laughing, quarrel, pleasure, moroseness, undue attachment to an object, envy, ill-will etc. are to be shunned.

The children should not be allowed to touch their reproductive organs as this habit leads to loss of energizing fluid, impotency and pollution of the hand as well. They should see to it that the qualities of truthfulness, courage, perseverance, cheerfulness etc. be imbibed. When the daughter and the son attain the age of five, they should be taught Devanagari script, and foreign scripts too.


----. Whatever is unwise or unrighteous and superstitious should also form the subject of advice so that they might not fall prey to false beliefs e.g. ghosts and spirits.


A.-Well, Mr. Astrologer, just as this earth is inanimate so are bodies such as the sun etc. They can do nothing beyond giving heat, light etc. Are they living beings that give pain, when angry and pleasure when satisfied?

Q.-Is it not due to stars that the prince and the peasant are happy or miserable in this world?

A.-No, they are all due to their good or bad deeds.

Q.-Is then the science of astronomy spurious?

A.-No, whatever pertains to arithmetic, algebra and geometry in it, is all right. But, whatever pertains to fruit, is all false.

Q.-Is this horoscope also fruitless?

A.-Yes. It is not horoscope; you should call it pathoscope (not a document of birth but that of miseries). ----. If the family is well-to-do, then the horoscope is beautified in red and yellow, and if poor, then it is made plain.


---. The children should be told in their very infancy what is the real significance of these fraudulent practices so that they may not fall into the snares of anyone and suffer accordingly. They should also be told that their well-being lies in preserving the virile fluid and their misery in wasting it. For instance, “See, whosoever preserves his virile fluid in his body has his health, intellect, power and energy duly growing and he enjoys pleasure. The means of its preservation is that the Brahmacharins (pupils) should shun love stories, company of amorous people, contemplation of love-exciting objects, looking at females, or keeping company with them, or talking to them or holding contractual relation with them in private etc. They should devote their exclusive attention to healthy thoughts and acquisition of perfect learning. ----. If you fail at this stage of your life, to acquire noble thoughts and knowledge, or to preserve your virile fluid, then you will never again get in this life this precious opportunity.----”


Those mothers, fathers and preceptors, who maintain a strict discipline over their children and pupils, are supposed to be giving nectar to them. Those who treat their children or pupils fondingly are, in fact, ruining them by giving them poison. Undue love makes children and pupils vicious and proper chastisement virtuous. Children and pupils should love strictness and dislike fondliness.

But mother, father and preceptor should not chastise them with malice or ill-will. They should exhibit apparent awe but intrinsic kindness.

In addition to other teachings, the children should also be told how to avoid stealing, lewdness, sloth, vanity, intoxicating liquor, lying, violence, cruelty, malice, ill-will, infatuation and how to imbibe good behaviour, as, if a man commits in the knowledge of another person, theft, fornication or any evil deed such as telling lies, then up to the time of his death he can never command respect in the latter’s eyes. None suffers so much as one that does not keep one’s promise. ----.


Ingratitude means the negation of the appreciation of the good done by others. One should be free from anger, shun bitter language, should speak only true and sweet words, and avoid talkativeness. One should speak neither more nor less than what is necessary. One should show due respect to one’s elders. ----.


--- the preceptor should always impart good advice to the children and pupils and should also tell them that they should copy only those actions of them which are righteous and whatever vicious they find in them, they should shun it. They should show and propagate only those things which they knew as truth. They should not have faith in any hypocrite or misconduct. They should duly carry out all the proper orders of their parents or teachers.

---. They should worship God according to the conception elucidated in first chapter. ---. They should shun the use of flesh, wine etc. ----.


            Those parents are perfect enemies of their children, who did not give them education. ---. It is verily the main duty, the highest religious obligation, a laudable achievement of parents that they should devote all their energies, mind and wealth to the imparting of knowledge, piety, culture and excellent instructions to the children.



Chapter – III


Now we shall describe the Method of Study and Teaching.

----. It is the chief business of the mother, the father, the preceptor and the relations that they should decorate their children with the ornaments of highest education, training, qualities, actions and habits. The soul of a man can never be beautified by wearing ornaments made of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, coral etc. as the wearing of ornaments leads only to physical vanity, sensuality, fear of thieves and possibly to death also. ----.

Blessed are those men and women whose mind is ever engaged in the pleasures of knowledge; who have formed good habits; who always obey the principles of truthfulness, etc.; who are free from vanity and un-cleanliness; who remove the un-cleanliness of others; whose ornaments lie in the form of removing the pains of the worldly people by sound advice and education; and who devote themselves to the good of other by following the injunctions of the Vedas.

--- as soon as they are eight year old, girls should be sent to girls' schools and boys to boys' schools. They should not be put in charge of teachers of bad character, whether male or female. Only such persons are fit to undertake the work of teaching and training as are thoroughly educated and virtuous.----.


----. All should get the same kinds of clothes, food and beddings, whether they be princes or princesses, or of poor families. They should all live a life of austerity. Neither the parents should meet their children, nor should children meet their parents. There should be no communication between them, so that they might be entirely free from the cares of the world and devote themselves exclusively to their studies.


----. The father, mother or teacher should teach their boys and girls the Gayatri Mantra with its meaning. The mantra is as follows:

Om Bhur Bhuvah Svah. Tat savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi, dhiyo yo nah prachodayat.


The first word of this mantra is OM. This has been explained in the first chapter. The reader is referred to it. Here we give in brief the meaning of three sacred syllables.

"bhuh" stands for the entity, who is the basis of the life of the whole universe, dearer than the breath itself and self-existent. "Bhuvah" is the name of the Lord, as He is free from all pains and His contact frees the souls from all troubles. "Svah" is the name of God as He pervades the multiformed universe and sustains all.


"O Almighty God, O embodiment of truth, intellect and bliss, O ever-pure, ever-wise and ever-free, O uncreated, unalloyed and unchangeable, O One that-is-within-all, O basis of all, Lord of the Universe, O creator of the whole world, O beginningless, O sustainer of all, O all-pervading, O ocean of the nectar of mercy, may we embrace or realize that excellent refulgence of Thine – who art our director-in-chief, dearer than our breath, etc.” What for is this prayer? “So that Thou mightiest direct our intellects.” “Thou art alone worthy of our worship. We do not acknowledge anyone else as Thy equal or Thy superior.”

The purpose of praying the Lord is that He being within our souls and intellects, will keep us away from evil-deeds and evil ways and will direct us towards the path of righteousness. Let us not worship anything but Himself. There is none His equal or superior. He alone is our father, king, judge and happiness-giver.


Next, comes Pranayama or breathing exercise.

‘When a man does breathing exercises, every impurity is removed in quick succession and the light of knowledge dawns upon him. The inner light goes on increasing until the salvation is attained.’

(Yoga. II.28)

‘Just as the impurities of the metals, e.g., gold etc., are destroyed by heating them in fire, similarly the defects of the mind and other senses are removed and their purity is achieved by the performance of the breathing exercise.’


---method of the breathing exercises:

Just as strong vomiting throws out food and water, similarly the breath should be forcibly thrown out and checked there as long as possible. When the breath intends to move out, the anus should be pulled upward. So long the anus remains pulled upward, the breath remains outside. This is the way how to keep the breath out long. When there is a feeling of uneasiness, then the breath should be slowly drawn in. The above process should be repeated according to the capacity and desire. This should be accompanied by the recitation of the sacred syllable OM in the mind. This conduces to the purification and firmness of the soul and the mind.

            Breathing exercise number one is ‘External’ i.e. to check the breath outside. Number two is stopping the breath inside as long as possible. Number three is instant checking i.e. stopping the breath all at once at whatever place one desires. ----.


---, then stuti, prarthana and upasana of God should be taught.


Q.-What benefit accrues from the performance of homa (fumigation rite)?

A.-All persons know that impure air and impure water cause diseases and diseases give pain to the creatures---.

Q.-Application of sandal paste to someone or giving of clarified butter etc. for eating is very beneficial. There is no wisdom in wasting these things by consigning them to fire.

A.-You would never have said such things, had you been conversant with the science of matter. No substance can perish in its entirety. Behold, wherever homa is performed, its good smell reaches the nose of a person standing at a place remote from it. So is the case with a bad smell. Just calculate thereby that a substance burnt in fire is rarefied and expands with the air and removes that impurities at a distant place.

Q.-If this is the object, then it can be served by keeping in the house, saffron, musk, flowers and other scents. They will make the air well-scented and will please the occupants.

A.-That scent has not the power to drive out the air of the house and replace it by purer air, as it does not possess power to rarefy. It is only fire that has the power of decomposing impure substances and throwing impure air out after rarefying it, which helps the purer air to come in place of impure air.

Q.-Then, what is the object of reciting mantras in the performance of homa?

A.-The mantras explains the uses of homa. Their recitation keeps them fresh in the memory. It helps the study of the Vedas and their preservation.

Q.-Is it a sin not to perform this homa?

A.-Yes! Because impurities coming out of a man's body pollute air and water, cause diseases and do injury to other beings, to that extent he is committing a sin. In atonement for this, he should contribute so much or even more towards the purification of air and water. If these things are given to a man for eating and drinking, it will do good only to one individual. The amount of clarified butter and aromatic substances which a single individual can make use of is sufficient to do good to thousands of persons through the instrumentality of homa. But if men do not eat wholesome substances such as clarified butter, their body and mind cannot be developed. Therefore, they should by all means eat such things. But at the same time, homa too should be performed. ---.


----, the pupils should bear in mind that if he would keep strict celibacy in this life, then his body and soul will grow healthy and strong and his vital airs will actuate excellent qualities to reside in him. ----.


Yamas are of five kinds.

First, Ahimsa or nonviolence i.e., freedom from ill will; second Truth of thought, word and deed; third, Asteya or non-stealing, i.e. abandonment of theft by thought, word and deed; the fourth, Brahmacharya or control on sexual organ; the fifth, Aparigrah i.e. freedom from extreme covetousness or self-importance. These Yamas and not only the niyamas should be followed with regularity. The five niyamas are given below:

First is shaucha or cleanliness of the body through bathing etc. The second is santosha or contentment. Contentment does not mean that one should remain satisfied with one's lot and do nothing. It means that one should do all that one can but should not feel sorrow or joy at loss or gain. The third is tapah, i.e. doing righteous deeds even in difficulties; the fourth is swadhyaya or study and teaching. The fifth is ishwarapranidhaana, i.e. resigning or surrendering one's self to God by special devotedness. These are five niyamas. The niyamas should not be followed without the yamas, but both should be followed together. ----.


---- mahayajna or great duties i.e. five daily religious duties called Brahmayajna or contemplation of God, Devayajna or daily agni-hotra, Pitr-yajna or service of parents, Vaishvadeva or feeding the needy, Atithiyajna or hospitality to guests.


            The rules of vacation are not applicable to the study and teaching of the vedas, daily prayers and other daily duties, or homa-mantras, as every-day-duties do not admit of any break. Just as respiration is an ever continuing work and cannot be withheld, similarly daily duties should be performed every day without break. ----.


It is the duty of the learned men and scholars that they should be free from ill-will and conduct the people to the path of well-being. The teachers should always use sweet and decent language. Whoever is desirous of the propagation of righteousness should always follow the truth and advise others to do so.

            A man who keeps his speech and mind pure and under control obtains all the good accruable from the study of the vedas.


            The teacher enjoins male and female pupils thus: - always speak the truth; do righteous deeds; study without being indolent; acquire all knowledge after keeping your brahamcharya intact i.e. preserving vital fluid; enter married life and beget children after bringing presents to the preceptor; never be away from truth through indolence; never forsake righteousness through indolence; never lose sight of health and mental equilibrium through indolence; never slacken the proper development of your excellent talents through indolence; never abandon study and teaching through indolence; never slacken the service of the godly and learned persons, mother, father and the like; do show regard to the learned, and serve mother, preceptor and guests in the like-manner; do all unobjectionable and righteous actions e.g. truthfulness etc.; never have recourse to those actions which are contrary to the above, such as falsehood etc., copy only those actions of ours which are good i.e. tally with the rules of conduct; never copy our improper actions; associate with only those persons in our midst who are learned and virtuous Brahmana; and have confidence on them alone; give (charity) through faith; give through no faith; give through gracefulness; give through shame; give through fear; and give through promise; if you ever fall into any doubt about duty, behaviour, mode of worship or acquisition of knowledge, then follow the wise, impartial, yogins or non-yogins, soft-hearted, lovers of righteousness and noble-souled people. This is an injunction, this is an advice, this is the secret of the Veda, and this is instruction. You should behave and build your character in this way.


---. Those who are desirous of knowing righteousness should ascertain it from the vedas. What is righteous and what is not, cannot be rightly determined without the help of the vedas.


----. When all classes are educated and trained, nobody can introduce fraud or unrighteous hypocrisy. The upshot is that the Brahmanas and Sanyaasis are the controllers of kshattriya etc. and the kshattriyas etc. are the controllers of the Brahmanas and Sanyaasis. Therefore, males and females of all classes should be educated.

            Now, the course of studies be very carefully examined. There are five ways of examination. Firstly, whatever is in agreement with the qualities, functions and nature of God and conforms to the vedas is truth. The reverse is untruth. Secondly, what tallies with the laws of nature is truth and what does not, is untruth. For instance, if anybody says a son is born without the conjunction of father and mother, then it should be regarded as untruth as it is against the laws of nature. Thirdly, whatever is in consonance with the rules of conduct of the learned, truthful and fraud free people is acceptable and the contrary is unacceptable. Fourthly, purity of the self should be attained through education. Just as pleasure is agreeable to the self and pain disagreeable, so should it be supposed in cases of others also. Just as you like pleasure and dislike pain, so do others. Fifthly, there are eight proofs of sources of knowledge: namely, intuition (Pratyaksha), inferences, (Anumana), comparison (Upamana), verbal knowledge (sabda), tradition (Aitihya), presumption (Arthapatti), probability (Sambhava) and negation (Abhava).

The definitions of these proofs as given below have been taken from the first and second chapters of the Nyaya darshana.

Ear, skin, eye, tongue, and nose come in direct (i.e., without any medium) contact with sound, touch, form, taste and smell, and these senses come in contact with manas (mind) and mind with atma (soul). The cognition produced by the contact is named pratyaksha or intuition (perception). But, this knowledge should not be the result of the relation which exists between name and the thing which this name stands for. For example, somebody said to a man, "Bring water." He brought water and said, "Here is water." Here the object which, the five-syllabled word 'water', stands for can be seen neither by the man, who ordered for the water, nor by the person, who was ordered to bring water.

The object of intuition is water itself i.e., the object of which the word 'water' is name. The knowledge arising from a word is the subject of 'testimony' or verbal knowledge (sabda pramana). The second condition of intuition is that it should be avyabhichari. For instance, somebody seeing a pillar at night mistook it for a man. When he saw it at day, the knowledge of the man disappeared and there remained in its place the knowledge of pillar.

The knowledge which can so vanish is called vyabhichari (changeable) and cannot come under the category of intuition (This means, such knowledge should be unchangeable). The third condition is vyavasayatmaka, i.e., convincing. Somebody saw the sand on the river's bank from afar and said, "Are clothes spread there? Or is it water or something else?" Or, somebody says "Is he Devadutta standing or Yajnadutta?" The knowledge cannot be called intuition until it is convincing. Thus, intuition (Pratyaksha) is only that which is free from these three defects i.e. first it should not be a knowledge arising from names; secondly, it should not be changeable and thirdly, it should be convincing.

            Inference is that knowledge of an unperceived object, whose one part has been perceived from a far distance and the other part has been inferred on the ground of the whole object or a part having been perceived formerly at some time or place. Thus, inference has perception as its precedent. It is like, you infer the existence of the father, when you see his son, or you infer the existence of fire when you see smoke on a hill, or you infer previous life when you observe pleasure and pain in this world.


Third proof is upmaana or comparison. For example, somebody says to his servant, “Bring Vishnumitra here.” He says, “I have never seen him.” His master replies, “As is this Devdutta, so is that Vishnumitra.”  

The fourth proof is authority (or word) or verbal knowledge.

            The teachings of an Apta (true realizer) are called authority.

---. The vedas come under the head authority as they are the Word of God. The words of those men are also authority who are true realizers in the above sense.


--- high minded sages have put in their books intricate subjects in a very easy form. This advantage cannot be derived from the books of petty minded authors. The object of sages is to put difficult thing in an easy form, so that common people may get the maximum good from the minimum labour. But petty minded writers put everything in so difficult a form that you may work very hard and get very little. The study of the books of common authors is like digging a mountain and getting a shell; while the study of the sages is like diving once and obtaining precious pearls.


--- the vedas should be taught with meaning, not without meaning----.

He, who does a mere reading of the Vedas, with accents without knowing their meaning is like a tree bearing the burden of branches, leaves, fruits or flowers, or like beasts of burden, carrying loads of corn etc. But he, who studies the Vedas and understands the accurate meanings of them attains the life of full enjoyments and abandoning sins through the instrumentality of knowledge and righteous actions obtains beatitude after death.


After having thus, studied the Vedas, four-years should be devoted to Ayur-veda or authoritative books on medicine written by sages, Charaka, Sushruta etc. Their study should comprise of theory and practice of the use of instruments, surgery, bandage, treatment, diagnosis, and of the knowledge of herbs, dietary, body, climate, weather etc.

After this comes the Dhanur-veda or the science of government. ----.

            Now comes, the Gandharva-veda or science and art of music comprising notes, modes, modifications, time, measure, scale, tune, air, instruments, dancing, singing etc.


            The Artha-veda means economics or study of art and craft, industry, commerce and everything that is related to the material well-being of the people.

            Two years should be devoted to the study of astronomy comprising of arithmetic, algebra, geography, geology and science of space.


            The educationists should so arrange that young students acquire all this knowledge within twenty or twenty-one years.


            But, in these books also, those portions should be left out which are contradictory to the teachings of the vedas.


These are all spurious and false books.

Q.-Is there no truth at all in these books?

A.-There is, of course, some truth in them; but the amount of untruth is much more. These books are worth abandoning like poisoned food.

Q.-Have you no belief in the Puranas and History?

A.-We have; but only in true ones, not in false ones.

Q.-Which are true and which are false?

A.-Brahmanani itihasan puranani kalpan gathi narasamsir iti.

            It is a quotation from Grhya-sutra. Itihasa, Purana, Kalpa, Gaathaa, Narasamsi are the five names given to the Aitareya, Satpatha and other Brahmanas not to Srimad-Bhagavat etc.

Q.-Why do you not accept that portion of the rejected books which is true?

A.-Whatever is true in them belongs to true scriptures such as the Vedas; and whatever is false, is their own. The acceptance of the true scriptures such as the Vedas, covers the whole truth. If anybody wishes to take the true portion of these books, their untruth also clings to him. Therefore, the truth adulterated with falsehood should be quitted like poisoned food.

Q.-What is your religion?

A.-Our religion is Vedic; i.e., we accept and reject those things which are respectively acceptable and rejectable according to the Vedas. We believe in the Vedas. All persons should believe so and the Aryas in particular, should profess no other faith than this and live harmoniously.


A.-Do you regard knowledge as one or many? If one, how are grammar, medicine, astronomy etc. different? Just as knowledge is one, but its parts are different from one another, similarly creation is one but its six aspects are dealt with separately in six different systems of philosophy. ----. Just in medical books, diagnosis, treatment, medicines, dietary, are dealt with differently under different heads, but the main object of all is the same, i.e.; the removal of pain; similarly, the world's creation is due to six causes and they have been severally treated in the six shaastras. ---.

Those things which stand in the way of studies should be carefully abstained from, e.g., evil company or association with bad and sexual persons; bad habits such as drink and prostitutions; early marriage, i.e., the marriage of a male before the age of twenty five and of a female before the age of sixteen; violation of Brahmacharya or sexual uncleanliness; aversion of the king, the parents, the men of learning, and the sacred books; over-eating; over-walking, indolence or in-sincerity in giving and taking examination; absence of consciousness of the value of learning; disbelief in the Brahmacharya being the chief means of strength, wisdom, prowess, health, government and wealth; wasting time in the worship of idols etc. in place of the worship of God; the reverse of venerating the parents; the preceptor, and other men of learning by believing them as the true objects of worship; violation of the rules of varnaas and aashrmaas and replacing them by the following absurdities as different kinds of sandal-pastes on the fore-head-one straight line, or three lines, or tilaks, wearing of kanthis (necklaces made of the wood of Tulsi plant etc.) and rosaries; fasts of the 11th or 13th of the month; pilgrimage to Benares etc.; faith in the efficacy of the recitation of names Rama, Krishna, Narayana, Siva, Bhagavati, Ganesha etc., in the removal of sins; disbelief in learning due to the teachings of hypocrites; belief in the reading of spurious Puranas as the means of salvation without learning, righteousness, yoga or God's worship; greed or wealth and aversion for learning; wandering aimlessly. Such undesirable ways of living deprive students of the benefits of Brahmacharya and learning and keep them unhealthy and ignorant.


Females and males both have a right to be educated – all men without distinction.


---. Just as God has made the earth, water, fire, air, moon, the sun, eatable vegetations and other objects for all, similarly, He has revealed the vedas too for all. ----.


Q.-Should women also read the Vedas?

A.-Surely. ----. Household affairs, conjugal happiness and home-keeping are the things which can never be satisfactorily accomplished unless women are well educated. ----. Therefore, they alone deserve our thanks and realize the full advantage of their lives who enable their children to observe Brahmcharya, get sound education, develop their body and mind and behave mannerly with parents, husband, mother-in-law, father-in-law, king, people, neighbours, friends and children. The treasure of learning is imperishable. It increases by giving. Other treasures decrease by spending ----.

---. The recalcitrant parents should be penalized. Nobody should be allowed, under state rules, to keep his daughter and son at home after the age of eight years. They must be sent to school and should not be allowed to marry before the completion of education---.

            The charity of teaching the vedas is the best of all charities-i.e. of water, food, cow, land, clothes, oilseeds, gold, butter etc.






            We shall in this chapter, describe Samavarttana, marriage and family life.

            ‘That man or woman is entitled to enter the family life who has practiced Brahmcharya in accordance with the preceptor’s instructions, has read all the four or three or two or at least one Veda with their auxiliary literature with righteousness and who has chastity.’

-Manusmriti III/2


            A girl who is not within six generations of the mother and who does not belong to the gotra (family) of the father, is a fit person to be married. The reason is as follows:


            The reason for avoiding these families for matrimonial purposes is lest these evils and diseases should creep into the other families too.


---. The reform of all reforms is the reform of marriage i.e. marriages should take place only after full education and Brahmcharya.


---. The marriage after the age of sixteen up to twenty-four conduces to the reproduction of good children, as at this age, does the male vital fluid get fully ripened and his body developed and the female reproductive organs are fit for maternity.


Boys and girls may remain unmarried up to the time of death, but they should not be married to an unsuitable person, i.e., one who is of different qualities, different tendencies and different temperament.

Q.-Should the marriage business be in the hands of parents or in the hands of boys and girls themselves?

A.It is the best to give full liberty to the boy and the girl. Even when the parents contemplate marrying their children they should not do so without the full consent of the children. Marriage with mutual consent is susceptible to the least disruption and conducive to the birth of excellent progeny. Marriage against liking always leads to constant quarrels. It is the bride and the bridegroom that have the chief concern in a marriage and not the mother or the father; it is the marrying couple that enjoys pleasure by mutual love and suffers pain from discord.

---. When man and woman wish to marry, there should be compatibility of learning, temper, manners, features, age, health, family and physique. No marriage is happy without this harmony nor is any happiness in the marriage celebrated in the early age.


----. This country of Aryavartta has been gradually declining ever since the practice of education with brahmacharya has been abandoned and marriages have taken place in early age under the servile authority of the parents. ---.

Let the marriages take place in the same varnaas (classes) and the varnaa system should be based on merits, profession and temperament.

Q.-Is only that person Brahmana or Brahmani (femal Brahmanas) whose parents are Brahmanas? Can the children of non- Brahmana parents be ever Brahmanas?

A.-Yes, they have been, they are and they shall be. ----.



The Brahmanical character of a body (life) depends upon the following things:

  1. Swadhyaya or study;
  2. Japaih or thinking, the performances of different kinds of homas, the reading of all the Vedas, fully understanding the relation between the word and the object and with proper accents;
  3. Ijyaya or performance of full-moon yajna etc.;
  4. Sutaih or child-breeding according to the already given methods;
  5. Mahayajnai, performance of five great daily duties--- brahma-yajna, deva-yajna, pitr-yajna, vaishvadeva-yajna and atithi-yajna.
  6. Yajnaih by performing yajnas, e.g., agnistoma, association with learned men, good behaviour, truthfulness, doing good to others, good deeds, study of art and craft, avoidance of evil ways and acceptance of noble things.


Q.-What is the proof that you think rightly and we think wrongly?

A.-The proof is quite evident. You call that practice tradition which has been current for five or seven generations. We call only that practice as tradition which has been current since the very birth of the universe i.e. the Vedas. ----.

            ----. If the parents or grandparents be bad, their ways should never be adopted.


            Why do you not acknowledge that man as Brahmana, who abandons the duties of his Varnaa and becomes low, or is converted into Islam or Christianity? You have only one answer. The man has left the duties of brahamnas, therefore, he is not a Brahmana. This proves that those born brahamnas who do good actions are brahamnas and those low-born also whose merits, profession and temperament are of higher varnaas are also of higher varnaas. Similarly, high born persons doing low things should be reckoned in the low varnaa.


----. As the mouth is the most excellent of all the limbs of the body, so those who are the most educated and possess most excellent qualities, professions and temperaments, among the mankind are brahmanas.


If a man born in a shudra family possesses the merits, actions and temperaments of a brahmana, or a kshattriya or a vaishya, he becomes a brahmana, kshattriya or a vaishya as the case may be. Similarly, a man born in a brahmana, kshattriya or vaishya family should become a shudra, if his merits, actions and temperaments are shudra-like.


            Similarly, by doing unrighteous deeds, a man born in higher classes descends to a lower class for which he is fit and should be regarded as such.

Whatever holds good in case of males is equally true of females.

Thus, it is that the varnaas can keep intact their respective purity by adhering to their own merits, profession and temperaments, i.e., nobody should live like a kshattriya or a Vaishya or a shudra in the brahmana family. The kshattriya, vaishya and shudra varnaas will also maintain their purity in this way.


These are six duties of a Brahmana-study, teaching, performance of yajna, officiating at the performance of yajna, to give charity and to receive charity. But to receive charity is a humbler duty.


The nine duties of brahmanas are as follows:

  1. not to entertain even an idea of evil in the mind nor to allow the mind to aberrate.
  2. To restrain the eye, the ear and other senses from unrighteousness and to turn them to righteousness.
  3. To observe the rules of Brahmcharya, to have self-control and to do right deeds.
  4. Purity---External body is purified by water, the mind by righteous conduct, the soul by knowledge and virtue, and intellect by thinking.
  5. Firmness in righteousness and forbearance of dispraise and praise, pleasure and pain, cold and heat, hunger and thirst, loss and gain, respect and disrespect, joys and sorrows.
  6. Mildness, humbleness, simplicity, straightforwardness and abstention from crookedness etc.
  7. Capacity to study the vedas with auxiliary literature, discrimination between truth and untruth-to understand a thing as actually is i.e. to look upon an animate things as animate and inanimate thing as inanimate.
  8. To acquire the knowledge of all things beginning with the earth right up to God and to make a due application of that knowledge.
  9. Never to be indifferent to the Vedas, God, salvation, transmigration, virtue, learning, good company, service of mother, father, preceptor and distinguished guests.

The following eleven are the qualities and actions (duties) of the kshattriya varnaa.


  1. Raksana – Judicious government of the subjects i.e., impartial regard of the virtuous and condemnation of the wicked and all round protection of all.
  2. Dana – to spend money and other resources for the propagation of education and piety and in the service of deserving persons.
  3. Ijya – to perform agnihotra etc., or to get them performed.
  4. Adhyayana – to study the Vedas and other scriptures, and to arrange for their teaching.
  5. Aprasakti – to abstain from sensual indulgence and by means of self-control to keep the body & the spirit strong.
  6. Shaurya – not to be frightened, even if fight has to be singly offered against hundreds and thousands.
  7. Teja – ever to exhibit valiance and never to humble oneself.
  8. Dhriti – perseverance.
  9. Dakshya – cleverness in all affairs pertaining to the rule and the ruled and acquaintance with all the books of law.

(10) Apalayana – to be firm and fearless in battle, never to leave the battlefield, nor to run away; to so fight as to win; if victory be possible through withdrawal of subterfuge, that should be had recourse to.

(11) Ishwarabhava – impartial and due treatment with all; judicious gifts, fulfilment of promises, never to dishonour word.


The qualities and duties of the vaishyas are given below:

  1. To maintain and multiply the breed of domestic animals such as cow etc.
  2. To spend money etc., for the progress of education and piety.
  3. Performance of agnihotra and other yajnas.
  4. Study of the Vedas and other scriptures.

(5) All kinds of trade.

(6) Kusida or money lending; ---- and never to charge, not even in a hundred years more than double of the loan.

(7) Agriculture

The duty of the shudra is as follows:      

It is proper for the shudra to abandon such evils as recrimination, jealousy, vanity and to serve the brahmanas, kshattriyas and the vaishayas with due respect and to earn his bread thereby. This is the only thing required of a shudra.


            ---. When at the disappearance of the menstruation, conception is certain, man and wife should not have intercourse for one year. This care yields a healthy child and the next child is also similarly healthy. If done otherwise, it results into the loss of vital fluid, shortening of the life of both and many diseases. But, they should surely have affectionate dealings in other respects.

----. A pregnant woman should studiously avoid purgatives, non-nutritious articles, intoxicants, and those things which are harmful to the body or the intellect. She should take butter, milk, good rice, wheat, green gram etc., according to the climate and weather.


            The room should be well cleaned after delivery and a homa with butter and odiferous substances should be performed there.


            That family man is also like a brahmchari who is satisfied with his wife only and goes to her at fixed periods only.

            Fortune and prosperity attend only on that family wherein the husband is satisfied with the wife and the wife with the husband.


            When the wife is happy, the whole family is happy. When the wife is unhappy, all others are unhappy.


            The family in which ladies are honourably treated produces men of learning. They are called devas and live a happy life. But, no success attends upon such families wherein ladies are not respected.


            It is proper for good men to tell another man’s failings in his presence and to hear their own defects from others, but only to speak well of a man in his absence. It is customary with bad men to praise a man in his presence and to find fault with him in his absence.


            And, if a man neglects these two morning and evening duties, he should be ostracized from the circle of twice-born---dvija and treated as a shudra.

Q.-Why should not the sandhayaa (worship) be done thrice?

A.-There are no three conjunctions. Light and darkness conjoin only twice i.e. in the evening and in the morning. Anybody, who does not like to accept this line of argument and insists on three sandhayaas may well perform fourth sandhayaa at midnight too. If he agrees to the midnight prayers, why should he not do so at every hour, every minute, every second, nay every moment? If he be willing to go so far, he will come to absurdities.

            Besides, there is no injunction of the midday sandhayaa in any scriptures. Therefore, it is proper to perform sandhayaa and agnihotra only twice and not thrice.


Shraddha is that action whereby truth is acquired and shraaddha is that performance which is done with shradhaa.----. Tarpana is that action whereby living parents and elders are satiated and made happy.


            Shraaddha and Tarpana are the services rendered to those named above by offering them excellent food, clothes, conveyance or all those things which may keep their minds free from worry and bodies free from diseases.

The fourth daily religious duty is vaishvadeva yajna.


            The fifth daily religious duty is the service of the atithis. Atithi literally means ‘having no date fixed’. It is a form signifying those peripatetic preachers of religion and spirituality-profoundly learned, well-up in yoga, Sannyaasins-who travel for the good of others and whose visits are uninformed.


            Then they should be respectfully seated and entertained with food and other serviceable articles. This should be followed by satsangas (association with virtuous persons) or conversation on topics of religion, livelihood, enjoyment and after-life.

            ---. Householders and royal dignitaries also deserve to be served on special occasions like atithis.

But the persons possessing the following characteristics should never be tolerated even with sweet words:


            --- so long as good atithis are not found in the world, no progress can be made. Their travels in all lands and preaching of truth there, prevent the growth of hypocrisies and house holders all over get an easy opportunity of increasing their knowledge. This is also a mean of religious uniformity of mankind. Doubts cannot be removed without atithis; firmness of beliefs cannot be achieved without the removal of doubts and where is happiness without firmness of beliefs?


Three kinds of Brahmanas

  1. he, who does not practice brahmcharya, truthfulness etc. (atapas literally means the person, who has not undergone the tapas or austerity);
  2. the uneducated and
  3. he, who is excessively fond of collecting charity on religious grounds


drown themselves in the ocean of misery owing to their evil-doings like a stone-made boat afloat in a sea. Not only do they drown themselves, but also take with them those, who give them charity.


The following are the characteristics of imposters:

  1.  Those who do nothing good, but cheat people in the name of religion and piety.
  2.  Ever greedy.
  3.  Fraudulent.
  4.  Who bluff of their own superiority in the presence of ordinary public.
  5.  Who do injury to others and are of malicious nature.
  6.  Popularity hunters – those who associate with all man, good or bad, indiscriminately.

These above six ought to be regarded cat – natured.

7     Those who always keep their eyes down for the sake of reputation.

8     The vindictive, such as are ready ever to kill a man in return for a slight injury.

9    The unscrupulous – those who serve their ends with all sorts of unfair means – cheating, betrayal of confidence etc.                        

10   Those who are not open to conviction and cling to their opinions obstinately, however wrong they may be.

11   Those who falsely assume an air of humility, contentment and piety.



‘It is also a point to be noted that if a man earns money sinfully, it is enjoyed by all the member of his family. But punishment for the sins is dealt out not to the enjoyers but to him alone.’

-Mahabharta Udyoga chap.32


‘Therefore, a man should slowly and steadily accumulate virtue for the welfare of the next life. It is only through virtue that a man can cross successfully the most un-crossable ocean of miseries.’

-Manusmriti IV/242


A pandita (learned man) is he, who knows himself; who is never idle; who is not affected by pleasure, pain, loss, benefit, respect, disrespect, dispraise and praise; who is constant in virtue and whose mind is never ensnared by temptations.


            The first signs of pandita are these---who at once grasps a difficult subject; who has studied, heard and pondered over the scriptures for a long time; who applies his knowledge to the welfare of others; who does nothing for his selfish purpose and who never gives his opinion uninvited or on wrong occasions. Such a person should be recognized as a pandita.


            The wise man call him fool who has read or heard no scriptures; who is extremely vain; who makes big projects without any means; who desires to get a thing without making an effort for it.


            How can a pleasure-seeker acquire learning and how can a student afford to be a pleasure-seeker? A pleasure-seeker should give up the idea of learning and a student should not allow a desire for pleasure come in his mind.


            Among the four varnaas, there should be mutual affection, regard for one another’s good, happy relations, and fellow-feeling on occasions of enjoyment, sorrow, profit and loss.


Q.-What is the harm in a re-marriage?

A.-(1)  Decrease of love between husband and wife. They can desert each other at their sweet will and marry another person.

(2)       When the husband or wife after the death of the wife or the husband marries another person, he or she might pilfer away the belongings of the former wife or husband and thus occasions disputes between the families.

(3)       Several good families might become extinct and their possessions be scattered.

(4)       Violation of the vows of husband-hood and wife-hood. It is for these reasons that remarriage or polygamy is disallowed among the twice-born.

Q.-The absence of issues will also lead to the extinction of family. And, the man or the woman is likely to fall into evil ways of adultery, abortion etc. Therefore, remarriages should be allowed.

A.-No, no. If the woman or the man wishes to lead a chaste life of brahmacharya, there will be nothing amiss. The house can continue by the adoption of a son from among the relatives. Adultery is out of question in that case. But if they find themselves incapable of keeping control over their sexual appetites, they can pro-create children by means of niyoga.

Q.-What is the distinction between a re-marriage and a niyoga?

A.-(1) In marriage, the woman leaves her father's home and goes to the home of her husband, having no special connection with the father's family, but in the case of nioyga the widowed woman remains in the house of the deceased husband.

(2) In the case of marriage, the children born of the woman belong to the married husband and inherit his property. In the case of niyoga, the children born of the woman neither are called the children of the begetter, nor belong to his family, nor has he any claim over them. They are called the children of the dead husband, they belong to his family, they ihherit his property and live in his house. 

(3) In case of marriage, mutual service and support are among the duties of the married husband and wife, in case of niyoga, there are no such responsibilities.

(4) The relation between the married couples last till death. But in case of niyoga, the relation ceases after the action. 

(5) The married couple remains engaged all their life in building up their joint home. 

But in case of niyoga, the man and the women keep on their respective homes.


Q.-This talk of niyoga seems like adultery.

A.-Adultery is the connection (of males & females) without marriage. Similarly, connection without niyoga is also adultery. This proves that just a lawful wedlock is no adultery; likewise lawful niyoga is also no adultery. Just as a maiden belonging to one family and bachelor belonging to a quite different family when joined by lawful marriage do not feel shame or sin in sexual intercourse, in the same way, the niyoga  as permitted by the Vedas should not be looked upon as adultery, sin or a shameful deed.

Q.-It is all right. But, still it sounds like prostitution.

A.-Certainly not. In prostitution there is no definiteness as regards the man or rules; but niyoga has rules like those of marriage. Just as in case of marriage, nobody feels ashamed in giving away his daughter to another man or in entering into sexual intercourse, the same thing should hold good in case of niyoga too. Those given to adultery have no scruples even after marriage.


Q.-Where is the necessity of a male's performing niyoga? He can re-marry.

A.-We have already explained that the Vedas and other Vedic scriptures allow the twice-born to marry only once and not twice. Justice demands that a bachelor should marry a virgin. Marriage between a bachelor and a widow or a virgin and a widower is unjust and bad. Just as no bachelor wants to marry a widow, similarly no virgin will like to marry a man who was married once and has had sexual intercourse with another woman. When no bachelor will like to marry a widow and no virgin to marry a widower, then widows and widowers will feel the necessity of niyoga. It is, but just that the like must meet the like.


            If there be a virgin widow, she can be married to the younger brother of the dead husband.


Q.-Is niyoga valid only after death, or in the lifetime of the husband also?

A.-In the lifetime also.


            Anyamicchasv subhage patim mat. (Rigveda X/10/10)


If the husband be incapable of begetting children, he should permit his wife in these words: - "O luck-desiring, thou, seek mate other than myself as now, I am unfit to beget children." On this, the woman may enter into niyoga and bear children; but should all along remain in the service of her married husband. Likewise, if the wife happens to contract some disease and find herself unfit to bear children, should also address the husband thus. "O my husband, now give up the expectation of issues from me, and beget children in some widow by the rites of niyoga."


Similarly, if the husband is intolerably cruel, it is proper for the wife to desert him, have a niyoga and bear children as heirs to the married husband's property.


It behoves a man and woman to take a carful note that their generative elements are most precious. They are the most foolish who waste them by entering into sexual intercourse with another's wife or a prostitute or with another's husband. No farmer or gardener is so foolish as to sow his seed in a farm or garden other that of his own. When such precaution is taken even by a simple man in the case of an ordinary seed, he is surely the most foolish who sows in an improper field, the seed of such an excellent tree as the body of man; as it will yield him no fruit thereof.


Q.-Why marry at all? Is it not putting oneself in a needless restraint and to a great trouble? Why should not a man and a woman live together as long as they can do so with affection and desert each other when love ceases?

A.-This is the way of beasts and birds, not of men. If there be no marriage system among men, all the beautiful things pertaining to family life would be topsy-turvy. Nobody would serve anybody, adultery would increase and people would die soon on account of diseases and lack of strength. Fear and shame would desert mankind. The aged would be neglected. Growth of adultery, diseases, feebleness and premature mortality would make an end of families after families. There would be no proprietorship or inheritance and nobody would keep a thing in his possession for a long duration. Considering all these disadvantages, the institution of marriage is the best thing.


            Just as rivers and rivulets wander hither and thither without any settlement, until they reach the ocean, similarly the house-holder’s life is the basis of all other ashramaas. They cannot do their proper work without the support of the householders. ----. The householder’s duties cannot be performed by weaklings and cowards. Therefore, competency has to be attained to enter the house-holder’s life.




Now, we shall describe the procedure of Vaanprastha and Sannyaasa.

The order in which ashramaas (or four stages) of a man’s life should be followed is this : --- first a man should finish his Brahmcharya life (student life with celibacy or strict sex purity), then he should enter Grihastha (married life); then he should be Vaanprastha or Recluse (go to a forest to practice austerities), in the end he should be a Sannyaasin or Renuncient (i.e. he should renounce the world and devote himself solely to the work of preaching religion and piety to the public).



A vaanaprastha should enter into this stage of life with the sole object of viewing truth after his initiation accompanied by the performance of agnihotra. He should attain knowledge and purity by means of agnihotra. He should attain knowledge and purity by means of all kinds of austerities, Yoga, and noble-thinking.

When he has a desire to become sannyaasin, he should send his wife home and embrace Sannyaasa.

‘After completing the third stage of his life, i.e., after living as a vaanaprastha from the fiftieth to the seventy-fifth year of his life, he should enter into the fourth stage and become sannyaasin; renouncing all his connections.’

-Manusmriti VI/33

Q.-Is it sinful to enter into the sannyaasa aashrama passing through the stages of grhastha and vaanaprastha?

A.-It is and it is not.

Q.-Why this duplicacy?

A.-There is no duplicacy. If a man renounces the world at an early age and then falls into sensual indulgence, he is the greatest sinner. But, if he does not, then he is highly noble.

            The very day non-attachment takes place, he should be a sannyaasin either from grhastha aashrama direct or from vaanaprastha. The procedure described above is only that which is followed in ordinary course. But, there are alternatives. The second alternative is to take the sannyaasa direct from the grahastha, without entering into vaanaprastha. The third alternative is to embrace sannyaasa immediately after the brahmacharya aashrama  (leaping over the two) if he is quite free from all carnal desires, has full control over his self and feels a very strong desire to devote his whole life to public good.


‘No man can realize God by mere intellect, if he is not fee from evil deeds, if he is not peaceful, if he has not acquired habits of concentration by means of yoga, or if he does not possess equilibrium of mind.’

-Kathopanishad II/24

            ‘A wise sannyaasin should check his tongue and mind from evil tendencies and should prompt them towards knowledge and inner-self. He should centre the self in God and knowledge in the quietude of the self.’

-Kathopanishad III/13


He should not keep company with the following:

‘Those who wallow in ignorance and think themselves great men and well-learnt, such fools are on the road moving downward and suffer miseries like the blind following the blind.’

-Mundukopanishad II/8

‘Those puerile-minded people, who take pleasure in ignorance, proudly think that they have achieved, what a man ought to achieve. They are engrossed in ritualism and owing to infatuation neither themselves realize the truth nor help others to do so. Such persons are always immersed in the pain of births and deaths.’

-Mundukopanishad II/9


‘Those sannyaasin whose inner self has become pure by means of firm renunciation and acquisition of the Vedaanta (i.e., knowledge of God given in Veda-mantras, their meaning and implications) enjoy the bliss of salvation, and come again to the world at the expiry of the period of salvation.’

-Mundukopanishad II/6


‘As long as the soul is in the body, it cannot be free from pain and pleasure. Only that soul is emancipated of worldly joys and sorrows which realizes the pure closeness of God in salvation after leaving the body.’

-Chhandogyopanishad VII/12/1



            ‘None but Sannyaasins can secure salvation for themselves and for others by giving up ill-will against all creatures & sensual indulgence; and by performing Veda-enjoined duties and extremely hard austerities.’

-Manusmriti VI/75


‘A sannyaasin can attain an abiding happiness in this life and after death only when he subdues all his desires for worldly objects and is clean of all external and internal emotions.’

-Manusmriti VI/80


Q.- What is the necessity of taking Sannyaasa?

A.- Just as the body needs the head, similarly other Aashramaas need sannyaasa. Without it, it is not possible to foster knowledge and piety. The other aashramas have very little leisure left after education, family affairs and other services. It is very difficult for other aashramas to be impartial. They are not as free as a sannyaasin to devote himself entirely to public work. The availability of time which a sannyaasin gets for learning and promotion of science is not same as available to other aashramas. Even sannyaasin passing through grahastha and vaanaprastha stages cannot be as useful to the world in promoting the cause of truth as a sannyaasin coming direct from brahmacharya.

Q.-The institution of sannyaasa is contrary to the wishes of God. God wishes to increase population. Without family life, progeny is impossible. If sannyaasa be most important and all become sannyaasins there will be an end of human species.

A.-Well, several marriages do not yield progeny or children die soon after their birth. Why do you not call it contrary to God's wishes? If you say, in the words of a Sanskrit poet that it is no fault of ours if success does not come even after making efforts, then we shall rejoin that it is a very great loss indeed if people multiply in family life but through unrighteous conduct fight each other to death. Quarrels are mostly due to misunderstanding. If a sannyaasin is successful in creating affection between the people by preaching true Vedic Dharma, he would be instrumental in saving hundreds of thousands, and doing the work of thousands of families in the increase of population. Besides, it is not practicable for all men to enter into sannyaasa. All cannot forgo sensual pleasures. There is one more point. All men who become virtuous by the preaching of sannyaasins should be looked upon as their sons.


Q.-Sannyaasins say that they have no duties to perform.

They receive food and clothes from others and live a life of ease. Why should they worry their brains about the world which is due to ne-science i.e., is unreal. They should regard their-self as God. If anybody comes to them, they should tell him the same thing, i.e., "Thou too, art God, no virtue or sin attaches to thee. Heat and cold belong to the body, hunger and thirst to vital airs, joys and sorrows to the mind. The world is unreal. So are the affairs of the world-unreal and imaginary. Therefore, it is not the business of the wise to be engrossed in this world. Whatever evil or good there is, it is all a function of the senses, not of the soul." Such are the teaching of the sannyaasins, while you assign quite different duties to the sannyaasins. Which should be held as true and which as untrue?

A.-Is it not their duty even to do good actions? Manu clearly says that all sannyaasins must do Veda-enjoined good deeds. Will it be possible for them to give-up eating and dressing? And, if they cannot give up such actions; then how are they not fallen and sinful by quitting good actions? When they accept food, dress etc., from the householders and give them nothing in return, then are they not committing the great sin of ingratitude? Just as eyes and ears are useless, if the work of seeing and hearing is not taken from them. Similarly, if sannyaasins do not devote themselves to the study and propagation of the Vedic teachings, they are a useless burden to the world. Those who preach that it is not worthwhile to worry our brains about the false world are themselves false and propagators of sin. Whatever is done through the medium of body is entirely of the soul and it is the soul that enjoys the fruit. Those who say that the soul is God, are in the slumber of ignorance. The soul is finite and its knowledge is also finite. God is infinite and all-knowing. God is eternal, pure, wise and free-natured. The soul is sometimes bound and sometimes free. God being all-pervading and all-knowing can never be susceptible to mis-apprehension or ignorance. The soul has sometimes knowledge and sometimes ignorance. God never suffers the pain of birth and death. The soul does. For these reasons their teachings are wrong.


Q.-Teaching and preaching are done by house holders. What is, then, the need of sannyaasins?

A.-Let teaching of truth be imparted to and received by all classes. But, family-men can neither afford so much time nor impartiality as sannyaasins can. As to brahmanas, it is their duty to teach and preach-males to males and females to females. But, sannyaasins have more time to travel from place to place than householder brahmanas. If the brahmanas do anything against Vedic injunctions, the sannyaasins can put a check over them. Therefore, there is a need of sannyaasa.


The belief that dead ancestors come and the offerings made to them actually reach them is erroneous. It is impossible as well as against the Vedas and all cannons of logic. When they do not come how can they flee? When according to God's design, souls are re-born after death in consequences of the merits or demerits of the past life, how is it possible for them to come? Therefore, this too is a fabrication of bellygods and mendicants. One thing there can be. Wherever sannyaasis will go, they will put an end to the anti-Vedic and irreligious practices of shraaddha for the dead.




Now, we shall describe the duties of the State.

            Manu says to the sages, “after describing the four varnaas and four aashramas, we shall speak of the duties of State e.g. what should be the type of the government; how should it originate and how should it be the most successful.”

-Manusmriti VII/1

            ‘Just as a Brahmana should be profoundly learned, in the same way a kshattriya should be well-educated, highly disciplined and should protect the kingdom with justice.’

-Manusmriti VII/2 

God enjoins that the governor and the governed should co-operate in fostering prosperity and enlightenment by establishing three bodies – Board of education, Board of religion and Board of politics and by providing men and other creatures with all-round education, liberty, piety, training, wealth etc.

The object in view is that one man should not possess the absolute power of government. Let the king be the President of the Assembly; the Assembly under him and he under the Assembly, he and the Assembly both under the people, and the people under the Assembly. If this system is not followed then:

If the ruling class be independent of the people, it will interfere and bring ruin upon the people. The absolute monarch, intoxicated with power, ruins the subjects and eats them up. There should be no absolute and unrestricted power. Just as a lion or other flesh eating beasts kill and devour fat and well grown animals, similarly, an absolute monarch destroys the State.

(Shatpath XIII. 2/3/7,8)


            ----. Experts in education should be members of the Education Board; those well-versed in religion, of the Board of Religion; men of righteous conduct and reputed fame of the Board of Politics; and whoever among them be the most excellent as regards qualifications, character and temperament should be made the President of the whole State. They should devote themselves to all kinds of progress. With the consultation of all the three Boards, a suitable constitution should be drawn up and all should respect that. In matters of common welfare, the opinion of all should be taken. Everybody should regard himself subordinate to law in matter of common weal. But, all should be independent in their personal matters.


            ‘Law is the real head, law is the real ruler, law is the administrator of justice, law is the actual governor and law is the custodian of four varnaas and four aashramas.’

-Manusmriti VII/17

            ‘Law governs the king, law protects the subjects, law wakes when men are asleep; therefore wise men hold that law alone is religion.’

-Manusmriti VII/18



            ‘Only that man do people call law-maintaining ruler, who always speaks truth and who fully and keeping in view the three objects of life- piety, enjoyment and material prosperity- administers law in consonance with the cannons of reason.’

-Manusmriti VII/26


            ‘The members of (this) cabinet ought to be well-versed in all the Vedas, logic, philosophy, religion etc.’

-Manusmriti XII/111


            ‘A mere collection of thousands of irresponsible, un-educated and ignorant masses (who exploit their birth in earning their bread) cannot be called a meeting.’ {This condemns mobocracy. (Tr.)}

-Manusmriti XII/114

            ‘The opinions held by those who are foolish and ignorant and do not know the Vedas should never be followed. Those, who act according to the advice of the ignorant are susceptible to all sorts of sinfulness.’

-Manusmriti XII/115


            ‘Nobody can govern people without being able to govern his own senses (mind, vital airs and the body). Therefore, the members and the president should always act righteously and avoid evil things. It is necessary for them to devote themselves to the practice of yoga, night and day.’

-Manusmriti VII/44


            ‘Even easy things are difficult for only one man, especially when he is unaided. Much more so a vast empire. Therefore, it is bad to make one man the absolute monarch or to depend upon one man for the management of the State.’

-Manusmriti VII/55

            ‘Therefore, it is very essential that the President should constantly consult his ministerial staff on the following six points:

  1. With whom to be at friend (2)         With whom to be in opposition (3)            of whom to take no notice, owing to unsuitable times while taking care that our own State is quite safe (4)   to attack enemy when our position is strong (5)     to preserve vital resources e.g. the State army, the State treasury etc. (6)    to restore peace and order in the subjugated countries.’

-Manusmriti VII/56


            ‘These persons (of the foe) can be arrested. But, out of the arrested ones, those who are sound in body should be put in prison and fed and clad properly. The wounded ones should be medically treated. They should neither be insulted nor tormented.’

-Manusmriti VII/92

            ‘----. Their children should be brought up like your own. So should their women. They should be looked upon as your sisters and daughters, and not even a glance should be cast at them with sensual feelings.’

-Manusmriti VII/93


            ‘The king and the assembly should be eager to --- increase what they have preserved, to spend what they have acquired by the multiplication in the propagation of Vedic culture and piety, and in the support of students, preachers and orphans.’

-Manusmriti VII/99


            ‘Let no enemy know your loop-holes or weak points. You should have a knowledge of their loop-holes up-to-date. Just as a tortoise keeps its limbs closed so should a king keep closed all inlets through which the enemy may have a chance of entry.’

-Manusmriti VII/105


            ‘The officers whom the king gives the charge of the protection of the subjects should be virtuous, well tried, qualified and of respectable families. Under them, there may be employed some infamous persons such as thieves, robbers also in order that they may be cured of their evil habits by their contact with persons of good character and they may be helpful in the protection of the subjects.’

-Manusmriti VII/123

            ‘The officers, who receive illicit gratification from the plaintiff and the defendant should be severely punished and all his belongings should be forfeited to the State and he should be interned in such a place that he might not return from there. Such punishments are a warning to other officers because if they are left free, others are encouraged to do similar evils. ----.’

-Manusmriti VII/124


 ‘The king and the assembly should keep two points in view in determining taxation---first, the smooth carrying on of governmental work and the second, the well-being of the people.’

-Manusmriti VII/128


            ‘That ruler is always looked upon with honour whose strictness and mildness are suited to the occasions i.e. he is strict to the offenders and mild to the well behaved’

-Manusmriti VII/140


‘That king is capable of ruling over the whole world, even without a treasury, whose secret thoughts are not detectable even by the conjoin efforts of many persons; that is, who maintains the secrecy of his ideas with the motives of benefaction.’

-Manusmriti VII/148

            ‘All sorts of precautions should be taken by every government in exercising the following six things:

  1. Keeping the arms at home.
  2. Mobilization for fighting the enemy.
  3. Alliance with other party.
  4. Hostilities or declaration of war with the wicked foe.
  5. Diplomacy or division of the army into two parts.
  6. Subordination or acknowledging the over-lordship of another strong power when our own State is weak.’

-Manusmriti VII/161


            ‘He (king) and his officers should be trained in the art of fighting. The people should also be given military education, as only those soldiers can fight well at the moment who have undergone adequate training previously. ----.’

-Manusmriti VII/187


            ‘Even a weak friend is praiseworthy if he is righteous, grateful, jovial, loving and steady in action.’

-Manusmriti VII/209

            ‘Care should be taken not to pick quarrels with a man, who is wise, respectable, brave, valiant, clever, learned, tenacious and acquainted with your past deeds. He, who enters into hostility with such men comes to loss.’

-Manusmriti VII/210


            As the improvement of a State depends upon wealth, health and plenty of the people, the king should make his subjects happy as his own children; and the subjects should likewise treat their king and ruling officers as their parents. The truth is that the subjects are the kings of the king and the king is only their protector.


            ‘All the members of that court are dead---not one alive---in which righteousness is murdered by un-righteousness and truth by untruth.’

-Manusmriti VII/14

            ‘Righteousness murdered kills its killer and righteousness defended protects its protector. Therefore, righteousness should never be murdered lest it should murder its murderer.’

-Manusmriti VII/15


            ‘Righteousness is the only friend which accompanies us even after death. All other friends stop their friendship with the end of life.’

-Manusmriti VII/17


‘Those persons should be allowed to be witnesses who are more trustworthy, learned, pious, non-deceitful, above monetary temptations and knowing all their duties.’

-Manusmriti VII/63


            ‘The witness, who speaks the truth gets a good life after death; is born under favourable environment and is happy. He glorifies this life as well as the next. It is given in the Vedas that this tongue is a cause of respect and disgrace both.

            He, who speaks the truth is respected. And, he, who speaks untruth is condemned.’

-Manusmriti VII/81


            ‘The king, who does not punish the guilty and punishes the guiltless i.e. he, who acquits the criminal and punishes the innocent, receives ill-name in this life and misery in the afterlife.’

-Manusmriti VIII/28


            ‘A criminal should never be forgiven by the king, whether he be father, preceptor, friend, wife, son or priest. A judge sitting on the seat of judgement must do justice without any partiality.’

-Manusmriti VIII/335


            ‘----. If government servants are not punished more than ordinary men, then government employees would tyrannize over the pole. ---.’

-Manusmriti VIII/336


            ‘The killer of a murderer is not guilty of murder---.’

-Manusmriti VIII/351


Q.-If the king, the queen, the judge or his wife commits adultery etc., who may punish them?

A.-The assembly. They deserve more harsh punishment than ordinary persons.

Q.-Why will the king and government official, receive punishment from the assembly?

A.-The king is a virtuous and fortunate being. If, he is not ready to receive the punishment, why should others? Besides, if people, the president and government officers are determined to punish the king, he can do nothing. If, this be not the policy, the king, officers and other influential persons will abandon righteousness, plunge into sinfulness, ruin the people and kingdom and annihilate themselves in the end. Remember the verse, we quoted heretofore that justice administered is the real king and the real religion. Whoever, violates it, is very mean.

Q.-The cutting of a limb is not a proper punishment. No man is the maker of a limb of the body, nor can he bring it to life. Therefore, such a harsh punishment is bad.

A.-Those who regard it harsh, do not know the art of governing. If one man is given such punishment, it will be a lesson for others and they will quit bad ways and adopt virtue. To tell the truth, if the amount of punishment is distributed over all the criminals, each criminal will get infinitesimally small quantity as his share. What you call mild punishment becomes tremendously big when put together. When many persons do a crime, the punishment shall have to be lessened. Suppose one man gets a maund of punishment and another one fourth of a seer. Then, the average comes to twenty seers and one eighth of a seer. Will the evildoers mind such a punishment? Suppose, one man is given a maund of punishment or a thousand men a quarter of a seer each. The latter comes to the total amount of 6 maunds and a quarter. Therefore, this latter which you call mild is more grievous to the nation.


            If only intellectual education is emphasized, the one, physically strong man can subdue hundreds of men of learning, and if only physical side is developed at the expense of the intellectual side, then no government is possible, without the help of the learned people.

            ----. Nothing is so weakening of the body and the intellect as adultery and sexual excesses. The ruling class should be especially stout and healthy. If the rulers are sensual, the whole government will come to naught. It should be remembered that the subjects follow the ruler. Therefore, it is all the more necessary that the king and the government officers should never indulge in vices and should always set sound examples of righteousness, justice and reform before their people.





----. --- God is endowed with all divine attributes, actions and nature. He has all knowledge. In Him subsists, luminous bodies such as the Earth and the Sun. He is all pervading and God of all devas. Those who do not know Him, or have no faith in Him or do not contemplate Him are most unwise and atheistic, and are always plunged in the ocean of miseries. The realization of God is the only means of making all men happy.

Q.-Do you accept the view that the Vedas inculcate more than one God?

A.-We do not. Nowhere in the four Vedas there is a mention of the plurality of Gods. Rather, there is a clear mention that God is one.

Q.-There is a description of many devatas in the Vedas. What do you say so?

A.-Anything having luminous properties is called devata, e.g. earth. But it is nowhere regarded as God or an object of worship. This very mantra (Rigveda 10.49.1) clears the point when it says that all the devas (devatas) subsist in God. They are mistaken who hold that deva and God are synonyms.


Q.-You repeat the name of God so often. But, how do you prove His existence?

A.-By perception and other evidences.

---. The knowledge which we get by the contact of ears, skin, eyes, tongue, nose and mind with sound, touch, form, taste, odour, pleasure, pain, truth, untruth etc. is perception, provided that it may not be erroneous. Now, let us note that the perception which we get through senses and mind is of attributes and not of the substance. Just as the four senses skin etc. perceive the attributes touch, form, taste and odour, and the soul with the help of the mind perceives earth and other substances, of which these are the attributes, similarly by perceiving design, intelligence and other attributes of God in this universe, we perceive God also. ----. When the evidence of perception is available for proving that God is, there is no doubt about other evidences. ----.

Q.-Is God everywhere or does He reside at one place?

A.-He is everywhere. Had He been at one place only, he could not have been all-pervading, all-knowing, all-ordaining, all-creating, all-sustaining and all-dissolving. No agent can work at a place where he does not exist.

Q.-Is God merciful and just both or not?

A.-Yes, He is both.

Q.-These two attributes are inconsistent. Where there is justice, there is no mercy; and where there is mercy, there is no justice. Justice means the giving of exactly so much pleasure or pain as is one's due on account of one's good or bad actions; neither a jot more, nor a jot less. But, mercy means to let the guilty go unpunished.

A.-Justice and mercy differ only in name. They both serve the same purpose. Punishment is given with the purpose of dissuading man from sin and preventing his pain. Your interpretation of justice and mercy is not correct. Justice means that a criminal should be punished to the extent of his crime. If he is not punished, mercy is out of question. To let off one robber means to give pain to thousands of righteous people. How will it be called mercy when letting of one man means misery to so many? To put the robber in the prison and to prevent him from further evil deeds is mercy to the robber, and to kill the robber is mercy to thousands of other men.


----. The greatest mercy of God is this, that God has created, all sort of objects in the world so that the souls may be benefited thereby. What else can be a greater mercy? ----. The only difference between mercy and justice is of angles of vision. When one wishes that people may be happy and be exempted from pain, it is mercy. But the dealing out of punishment etc., by external actions is justice. The purpose of both these is the same, viz. prevention of sin and removal of pain.

Q.-Has God a form or is He formless?

A.-He is formless. If he possessed a form, how could He be all-pervading? Had He not been all-pervading, He could not have had attributes such as omniscience. Every finite thing has finite attributes, finite activities and finite nature. Besides, a God with form (a corporeal God) could not have been free from such limitations as cold, heat, hunger, thirst, disease, impurities, piercing, cuts etc. This proves that God is formless (incorporeal).


Q.-Is God all-powerful or not?

A.-He is but not in the sense, in which you think. All powerful means simply this that he does not require the assistance of anybody else in creating, sustaining and dissolving the world; and in awarding pain and pleasure for good or bad of the souls. He accomplishes all His work through His infinite capacity.

Q.-But, we hold that God can do whatever He wishes. There is none above Him.

A.-What does He wish? If you say that He wishes everything and can do everything then we would put some questions – Can He kill Himself? Can He make an equal of Himself? Can He become ignorant? Can He commit sins such as adultery? Can He suffer pain? These things are inconsistent with His qualities, actions and nature. As such, your statement that "He can do everything" is also inadmissible.


Q.-Is it a duty that we should worship God?

            {STUTI, PRARTHANA and UPASANA, have become a proverbially joint phrase for all the implications of the word WORSHIP. (Tr.)}


Q.-Will God in exchange of worship absolve the worshipper of his sins?


Q.-Why worship, then?

A.-Its object is different.

Q.-What is it?

A.-Stuti or appreciation creates love for God and helps a man to reform his character by contemplating the character of God.

            Prarthana or prayer creates humility, hopefulness, and confidence.

            Upasana conduces to communion with God and His realization.


The purpose of this stuti or appreciation is to imbibe those qualities, actions and characteristics which God has e.g. He is just, therefore we too should be just. If a man sings laudations to God very loudly like a court-fool and does not reform his conduct, his stuti or prayer is meaningless.


            ----. The prayer should be accompanied by like-wise conduct. For example, if a man prays for wisdom, he should have no stone un-turned in acquiring wisdom. It means that prayers should follow exertions. Following types of prayers should never be made, nor is God expected to listen to them.

            “O God, destroy my enemies, make me the greatest of all. May I be most respected. May all be my subordinates.”


----. When a man practices these methods, his-self and the inner-organ become pure and filled with truth; and by constant increase of truth and discrimination he reaches the stage of beatitude. If a man devotes even half an-hour a day to this practice, he would progress.


            The result is that Just as a chill-stricken man is cured of his chill by going close to fire, in the same way, by going close to God, all impurities and sufferings are shaken off and the qualities, actions and nature of the soul become similar to those of God.


----. Besides, a man who does not worship God is ungrateful and foolish as well. It is ingratitude and folly to forget the Supreme Being who has given all the objects of the world for the enjoyment of souls, to overlook his obligation and further to deny His very existence.

            God has no hands, but He grasps all and creates all with the hand of His power; He has no feet but being all pervading, He is very quick in reaching a place; He has no organ of sight, but sees all things accurately; He has no ears, but He hears the talk of all. He has no internal-organ but He knows the whole universe; there is none who might know the whole of Him, Him they call eternal, most excellent, and all-pervading Purusha (Being).


            Nothing is produced out of God, not does He need any instrument. None is either His equal or His superior. The most excellent power comprising infinite knowledge, infinite strength and infinite action resides in Him inherently. Had God been action-less, how could He create, sustain and dissolve the universe?

            Therefore, He is all-pervading and being intelligent, there is activity in Him.


            If God’s combination with matter be the hypothesis, God would be subjected to the same fault as matter. Just as matter combined becomes gross, so shall God. Therefore, God is not material cause of the universe.


Prakriti (matter) is unborn and has triple nature-sattva, rajas and tamas. It being changeable is transformed into various objects of the world. But, Purusha or God being un-changeable is never transformed to any other form. He remains always the unmodifiable same.


            In this verse Lord Krishna says, “whenever righteousness deteriorates, I take my birth”

            Being anti vedic, this statement is not valid. If you take it in another sense, it may be accepted. Krishna was a virtuous man and always wanted to do good to the world. He might have meant that in order to protect the righteous and destroy the wicked, he would like to be born in every age.



Q.-If God were not to come into flesh, how would He kill wicked persons like Kansa and Ravana?

A.----. Do you think that to kill Kansa, Ravana etc. or to lift up the hill, named Govardhana, are more difficult tasks than the creation, sustenance and dissolution of the earth, the Sun, the Moon and other objects? If one looks at God’s work in nature, he must admit that there is none equal to God, nor there shall ever be.

 Reasoning also disproves God’s incarnation. If anybody were to say that the infinite space entered the womb or somebody closed it in his fist, it would be wrong because space being infinite and all-pervading, the use of the words ‘came in’ or ‘went out’ is meaningless in this connection. Similarly, God being infinite and all-pervading, it is ridiculous to say that He goes or comes out. A thing goes to or comes from the place where it does not exist. Did God not exist in the womb before He came into it? Or, did He not exist outside before He came out? Who but a fool can speak or believe so in connection with God? ----.

Q.-Does God forgive the sins of His devotees, or not?

A.-No. If sins were to be forgiven, His Justice would be tampered with and all men would become sinful. Mere prospects of forgiveness make man bold and courageous to commit sins. When a king pardons the failings of his men, they become bold and commit gross faults in the hope that when they would beseech him (king) with folded hands and humble demeanour, he (king) would forgive them. Even those who are inclined to crimes, begin to commit them, as they have no fear. The same holds good in the case of God. Therefore, to reward virtue and punish vice in exact proportion is the work of God; not to forgive sins.


Q.-Is the soul free or dependent?

A.-It is free in the performance of its duties but dependent on God’s government for the fruits of its actions.


            ----. Just as the soldiers, who kill many men in a battle, under the orders or insinuation of the commander-in-chief are not guilty of murder, similarly, if the soul were to do actions at the suggestion of or under compulsion from God, they would not be accountable for their good or bad deeds. Only God would deserve their fruit. The Hell and heaven, pain and pleasure, should also be the lot of God. If a man kills someone with a weapon, the man is arrested and not the weapon, similarly the dependent soul could never merit the fruit of good or bad action. Therefore, the soul is free in doing the deeds which are within its power. But when it had done them, it becomes bound by God’s government to enjoy fruit.


Q.-If God had not created soul and given them power to do an act, they could have done nothing. Therefore, it follows that whatever souls do, they do under orders from God.

A.-Souls are never born. They are uncreated. God and matter are eternal. God creates the body and the sense-organs, but they are all in the subordination of the soul. When a soul does a good or a bad action in thought, deed or word, it is that very soul which suffers, not God. Suppose, a miner dug iron-ore out of the mine, a dealer purchased it, then it passed to the smith who made a sword. The solider bought the sword and killed a man with it. Now, the king will punish only the killer and not the producer or dealer of the iron or maker of the sword or the sword itself. Just so, God who creates the body etc. is not the sufferer, but the soul itself which does the actions. If God were the doer of the deeds, no soul would commit a sin, as God being holy and righteous would actuate no soul to do an evil deed. It is clear, therefore, that the soul is free in doing its deeds, as God is free in doing His.

Q.-What are the essence, attributes, activities and nature of the soul and God?

A.-Both are rational beings. The nature of both of them is purity, imperishableness, righteousness etc. But, God’s activities consist of the creation, sustenance and dissolution of the world, the government of all things, and the awardal of reward and punishment to the souls for their good and bad actions. The soul’s activities consist of right or wrong actions concerning procreation and upbringing of children, art, craft etc. God’s attributes are eternal knowledge, eternal happiness, eternal power etc.

The attributes of the soul are as follows:


(1)       Desire to get things,  (2)      Aversion from pain, and ill-will,

(3)       Energy,          (4)       Happiness,       (5)    Sorrow or displeasure,

(6)       Discrimination


The Vaiseshika-Sutra adds the following more:

(7)       In-breathing      (8)   Out-breathing    (9)   Closing the eyes

(10)     Opening the eyes      (11)  Decision, memory and egoism

(12)     Motions                             (13)          Use of senses          (14)     Internal emotions such as hunger, thirst, joy, sorrow etc.

----. The soul being invisible can be distinguished by means of these above mentioned attributes.


            It is foolish to call God the seer of the three times. The past is that which was and is not. The future is that which is not and shall be. Is there any knowledge of God which was and is not and is not and shall be? The knowledge of God is always the same, imperishable and indivisible. Past and future are only from the view point of souls.


            Aham Brahmaasmi means Aham Brahmastha asmi i.e. I subsist in God. Here is the figure metonymy, container for the thing contained. When we say that ‘platform cries’, we mean that watch- man seated on the platform cries, because the platforms being inanimate have no power to cry. The same holds good here.


----. Chhandogya Upanishad does not negate the existence of soul or matter. It simply means that soul and matter are not equal to God. They are inferior. It signifies the singularity of God and plurality of souls and material elements. ----.


            Partial similarity is no proof of identity e.g. earth, water and fire are all inert and visible. But they are not identical. Their peculiarities prove their distinctiveness. ----. God’s infinite knowledge, happiness, power and activities, infallibility and omnipresence differentiate Him from the soul; and finite knowledge, finite magnitude, fallibility and minuteness differentiate it from God. Therefore, God and soul are not the same.


            Ether is pervasive, fine, formless, infinite and the bodily object is finite, visible etc., just as earth and other objects are never separate from ether because nothing can subsist without ether, but at the same time they are distinct because of their distinctive attributes, Similarly God being all-pervasive, souls and other objects like earth, cannot be separate (different) from God, but at the same time, can never be identical, on account of their different characteristics. Before the building of the house, clay, wood, iron and other building-articles though scattered in different places, were actually subsistent in ether. When the house has been built, even then they are in ether. And when the house is demolished and all its particles are scattered, they will still subsist in that very ether.

            This means that these objects can never be separated from ether. ----. Being pervaded by God, souls and other objects of the world can never be separated from Him, but being of different characteristics they can never be one.----.


----. All things are attributeful, so far as they have their own attributes; and at the same time they are attribute-less, so far as they are wanting in the attributes of other things. There is no object which is either only attributeful or only attributeless. Attributefulness and attributelessness both reside at the same time in the same object. Similarly, God is attributeful by dint of possessing His own attributes, infinite knowledge, infinite power etc. and, He is attributeless also for He is free from the qualities of inert objects such as form and of souls, such as aversion.


Q.-Is God desireful (ragi) or renunciative (virakta)?

A.-Neither. Covetousness or desire is always for a thing remote from and better than oneself. There is nothing remote from God, nor better that He. Therefore, it is not possible for Him to covet. Renunciative is he who abandons what is in his possession, God being pervasive cannot abandon anything.

Q.-Has God any wish (Ichha) or not?

A.-In the ordinary sense, God has no wish. A man wishes only that thing which he does not possess, but which is better than his possession and whose acquisition is expected to make him happier. There is nothing that God does not possess nor there is anything better than God. His happiness being full, there is no question of making Him happier. Therefore, wish is out of question in connection with God. But there is one more tendency somewhat akin to ichha (wish). That is ikshana or insight into everything and a tendency to create.


            {Ichha or wish is a passion while Ikshana is a spontaneous tendency, a sort of nature. (Tr.)}

            Being all-powerful and pervasive God does not need mouth etc. for the revelation of Vedic science. The use of the mouth or the tongue is needed only in pronouncing words to those, who are remote from us; not for ourselves. ----.

            Close your ears with your fingers and hear how many sounds are audible without the use of the mouth and the tongue. In the same way, God, who is within the souls, revealed His teachings to them. Pronunciation is necessary only when we make others hear the words.

            God being formless (incorporeal) and all pervasive reveals all Vedic science to the souls from within. It is after this revelation that men teach the Vedas to others through word of mouth. This difficulty cannot arise in the case of God.

Q.-How do you prove the Vedas to be God revealed and not man-composed?

A.-God is holy, all-knowing, pure in nature and just, merciful, etc., in quality. The book that describes God exactly as He is, is God's and not of others’. That book is God's in which there is nothing against laws of nature, or evidences such as perception, authority etc. God's knowledge is infallible and therefore, the teachings of God's book should also be equally infallible. In God's book there should be the same order or things as exists in nature, the same description of God, soul, creation, its cause etc. as they actually are. The Vedas are such books.

There is nothing in them which might be contradictory to the laws of nature or invalid according to the laws of logic.

Q.-What is the need of positing that the Vedas are from God? Men increase their knowledge step by step and in the long run succeed in composing books.

A.-They can never do so. There can be no effect without a cause. The men living in jungles cannot be learned by mere observation of nature. They can be learned only when someone gives them education. Even in these days nobody becomes learned without receiving education. In the same way, had not God taught the sages the Vedas and they to others, there would have been no educated man today. If any baby is put in a secluded place, in the midst of the ignorant people or of animals, he will remain ignorant like his associates.----.


            Just as we, these days, acquire knowledge by reading with our teachers, similarly, God is the teacher of those, Agni and other sages, who were born in the beginning of the universe.


            It was the Supreme Being who made it known to them. And whenever virtuous men, yogins, sages etc. went into communion with God, expressed an eagerness to understand the Vedas, God helped them to do so. When the Vedas became known to many, those sages wrote commentaries and historical books. These books came to be known as the Brahmanas or notes on Brahma, i.e., Vedas.

            Whichever sage saw (Clearly understood) the meaning of a Vedic verse and before whom none had brought it to light became the seer or rishi  of that verse and his name is even today pre-fixed to that verse, in honour of his memory. Whoever calls those rishis the authors of those verses is wrong. They were the seers and publishers of their meanings.

Q.-Which books are called the Vedas?

A.-The Rik, the Yajur, the Saman, the Atharva; only the mantra portion (collection of the mantra).


            ----. History is always written after the occurrence. It cannot pre-exist the birth of those whose life it describes. The Vedas contain no history. There is no reference in them, of any particular man or particular event. There, the words are used in their derivative sense.


            Just as parents are kind to their children and desire their welfare, in the same way, God has very kindly revealed the Vedas for the good of men, so that by acquiring the sun of knowledge, they may be free from the darkness of superstition and improve their learning and happiness.

Q.-Are the Vedas eternal or non-eternal?

A.-Eternal. God being eternal, His knowledge is also eternal. Eternal substances have eternal qualities, activities and nature. Non- eternal things have non- eternal qualities etc.

Q.-Are these books also eternal?

A.-No. A book is made of paper, ink etc. How can it be eternal? But words and their relation with the things they stand for, are eternal.


            The rishis have composed books on grammar, philology, prosody etc., after having read the Vedas. If God had not revealed the Vedas, nobody could have composed anything.





In this chapter, we shall deal with the creation, sustenance and dissolution of the universe.

            ‘O men! The supreme Being is He by whom this whole universe has been brought to light, who sustains and dissolves it, who is the Lord of all this world and in whom this whole universe finds the principle of origin, sustenance and end. Him dost thou know and acknowledge no other being as the author of this creation.’

-Taittiriyopanishad. Bharigu-valli. 1


Q.-Does this universe originate from God or from anything else?

A.-Its agental cause is God, but its material cause is Prakriti (materia radica).

Q.-Did not God create the Prakriti?

A.-No. It is beginningless.

Q.-What is the meaning of the word 'beginning' and how many things are beginningless?

A.-God, soul and the material cause (materia radica) of the universe are beginningless.

            {A pot has three causes:

  1. The potter, who makes the pot.
  2. Clay, of which the pot is made.
  3. The tools with which the pot is made, including time, place etc.

In Sanskrita, they are called respectively as nimitta cause, upadana  cause and sadharana cause. It is difficult to find English equivalents for them. Other translators have translated the 'nimitta' as efficient, though we feel that in many respects the word is misleading. In fact the efficient cause is that which needs no other cause (material or other). (Tr.)} 



----.The material cause is beginningless like the root. The created objects of the world are like branches. In their created stage, they are gross. In their dissolute stage, they are fine. The whole thing (root and branches), has been called 'tree'. ----. The soul enjoys well the fruits of this tree of the world as the reward, for his good or bad deeds. But, the former, i.e., God not enjoying the fruit of His actions brightens the whole thing in and out (supervises). God is distinct from the soul. The soul is distinct from God. The prakriti is distinct from both of these. And, all the three are beginningless.


            ----. These three (Prakriti, Soul and God) are the cause of the universe. They have no cause of theirs.

            ----. Just as limbs of the body are of use only so long as they are with the body and become useless when separated, similarly passages become meaningless when they are taken away from the context, or combined with irrelevant passages.

Q.-How many are the causes of the world? 

A.-Three-first agental cause, second material cause and third auxillary cause.

            Agental cause is that by whom the thing is made and without whose agency the thing cannot come into being. The agental cause does not convert himself into that being. He only changes one thing in the form of another.

            The material cause is that without which the thing cannot be made, which itself is transformed into that thing and is again dissolved also.

            The auxiliary cause is that which is instrumental or an ordinary help in the formation of the thing.

             The agental cause is of two kinds:

            The chief agental cause is God who makes the universe out of the materia-radica, sustains and dissolves it and governs everything.

            Then, there is another agental cause, the soul which is an agent in an ordinary sense. It takes the articles out of God’s creation and fashions them into different forms. ----. Without these three causes (agental cause, material cause and auxiliary cause) nothing can be made or un-made.


            If God were the material cause of the universe as you hold, then He would become changeable, transformed and corruptible.


This whole universe was enveloped in darkness in the dissolution preceding this creation and will become the same when the dissolution commences again. In that condition, it was neither knowable nor thinkable, nor perceptible by patent sense-assignments, nor will it be. But at present (in the state of creation) it is patent and knowable by means of apparent assignments. ---.

Q.-What is the object of God in creating the world?

A.-What would have been His gain had He not created the world?

Q.-Had He not created the world, He would have been saved so much botheration (remained happy) and the souls would have been free, from the turmoil of pleasure and pain.

A.-These are the ways of the idle and inactive and not of energetic beings. And what pleasure or pain is there for the souls in the state of dissolution? If you compare the pleasure and pain of the world, happiness many times exceeds pain and many pure souls earn the bliss of salvation by constant practice of virtuous actions. In the state of dissolution they lie unconscious as in sound sleep. Besides, the actions done by the souls in the creation last preceding would remain unrewarded and the souls deprived of the enjoyment of their fruit. If anybody asks you, "what is the object of your eye?' You will naturally say, "Seeing". Well, when God possesses the knowledge, the power and the potentiality of creativeness, how can He justify Himself except by creating the world?


Q.-Which is the first, the seed or the tree?

A.-The seed. Seed, occasion, genesis, origin and cause are the synonymous. Seed means cause and therefore, it must pre-exist the effect.


----. The weaving of a cloth can begin only when there exist a weaver, cotton thread and weaving instruments. Similarly, pre-existence of God, materia-radica, time, space, and eternal soul is essential for the creation of the world. If one of these is wanting, there can be no creation.


            ----. If you mean that non-existence is the only reality, well, the power of non-existence cannot be non-existent.

            {The argument is as follows. Shunya or void can have only two meanings – either invisible something like ether or point, or nothingness. If former, it does not matter much as according to theistic doctrine, the cause, whether material or agental is always invisible. You can call it Shunya if you like. Mere words do not matter. But, if the latter then there arise two cases; either you know nothingness or you do not. If you do know it, then you being the knower of nothingness are yourself something and therefore contradict your own doctrine that all is nothing. If you do not know it, it is absurd on your part to enunciate the theory of nothingness. (Tr.)}


            If the fruit of an action be dependent on God’s will, why does not God give a fruit without action?


            {If one species of trees bears thorns and another does not, it is clear that there must be some cause for this difference. The cause may be invisible. But, it does exist. It is wrong to say that things are produced causelessly. (Tr.)}

            ----. Just as in deep slumber, we experience no cognition of outer objects and yet they do exist outside, similarly during dissolution period the material cause (materia-radica) remains existent.


            {Swami Dayanand maintains that the whole world is not a collection of parts. It has its own separate entity. ---- (Tr.)}

If it is in the nature of elements to produce the universe, then the destruction of the universe will be impossible. If you say that it is in the nature of elements that the universe be destroyed, then production will be impossible. And if you hold that production and destruction both are simultaneously in the nature of elements, then production and destruction both will be impossible.----.


            Turmeric, lime and lemon-juice placed at different places do not come by themselves. Somebody brings them and then mixes them. ----. Similarly, no inanimate thing can be produced, for any particular use without the materia-radica, the knowledge of atoms and their proportionate mixture which is made by God.

Q.-There was no creation of the universe, nor there is nor there shall be. The world has been going on in this way from eternity. Neither was it ever created, nor will it ever be no more.

A.-No action and nothing which is the outcome of an action is possible without the doer. The earth and other objects which exhibit a designed combination can never be beginningless. Whatever is produced by composition does not exist before the production and does not remain after the destruction. If you do not agree to it, you can break, melt or burn even a hard stone, diamond or other things and see for yourself whether they have been composed of many particles. If they are combined, they will also be separated in due course.


Q.-There is no eternal God. Whichever soul by practicing yoga and acquiring special mystic powers attains omniscience and other such attributes, that soul is called God.

A.-If the Eternal God were not the creator of the universe, then how could the world, the body, the sense organs or other objects which are the basis of the very life of the souls and without whose help souls could not have practiced yoga etc. have come into existence. Whatever practices a soul may perform and whatever mystic powers it might acquire, it can never be equal to God, who is eternal, self-existent, and of infinite capabilities. Even if the knowledge of a soul reaches its maximum point, it will, after all, be of limited knowledge and limited power. It can never acquire Infinite knowledge or infinite powers. No yogin has, up to this day, been ever able to change the God-made course of laws of nature, nor shall there be.


Q.-Does God make the universe, of the same type in all cycles, or is there any speciality attached to any cycle?

A.-As it is now, so it was in the past and so shall it be in future. There is no difference.

            God has, in this cycle, made the same type of the sun, the moon, electricity, the earth, the atmosphere as He made in the previous cycles, and the same He will make in future cycles. For God’s actions being infallible are always of the same kind. The actions of that being are open to flaw whose knowledge is limited and progressive i.e. subject to growth as well as decline. God’s actions are not such.


The six systems of philosophy reconcile in the following manner:

  • The Mimamsa says that in the world there is no such effect as does not require activity.
  • The Visheshika says that nothing can be produced without time.
  • The Nyaya says that without the material cause no creation can take place.
  • The Yoga says that no production is possible without the application of science, knowledge and contemplation.
  • The Sankhya says that creation cannot take place without the composition of elements.
  • The Vedanta says that no article can be made unless and until the maker makes it.

Therefore, the creation requires six things. Those six things have been discussed in these six Shaastras, one in each.


            There were six persons- five blind and the sixth shortsighted, somebody showed them different parts of the elephant's body and then asked, "What sort of animal is, the elephant?" One of them said, "Pillar like"; another "Like an Indian flail"; another "Like a pestle"; the fourth, "Like a broom"; the fifth, "Like a platform"; the sixth, "Something buffalo like resting on four pillars".

            (Analogous to their anecdote is the diversity attributed to the Shaastras). It cannot be acceptable to the wise. If a blind man follows another blind man, they must come to grief. The ways of ill-educated, selfish and sensual people of these days are sure to bring the world to ruin.


            ----. He, who seeks the cause of cause, effect of effect, agent of agent, means of means and end of end is blind when he sees, deaf when he hears and ignorant when he knows. Is there ever such a thing as the eye of eye, the lamp of lamp or the sun of sun? That from which a thing emanates is the cause, that which emanates from the cause is the effect and he who produces the effect from the cause is the creator.


            ----. --- how intelligent is the creation of the body? It excites the wonder of the most learned. Inside is the body-frame, with nervous ties, invested with flesh and a skin cover; then there are spleen, liver, lungs and breathing apparatus; the lodging of the soul; organization of brain cells, arrangement of hair and nails; very fine eye nerves joined like telegraph wires; distinction of sense-jurisdiction, the building of different apartments in the body wherein the soul might dwell and enjoy in wakeful, dreaming and sound slumber state, distribution of all fluids, mechanism etc. Who can create such wonderful universe other than God? The earth set with gems and minerals, extremely delicate organism of the seeds of banyan and other trees, leaves, flowers, fruits, tubers, roots of various colours, white, yellow, black and variegated; of the various tastes, sweet, saline, bitter, astringent, pungent, sour, etc; various odours; myriad of orbs, the sun, the moon etc. The creation, sustenance, mobilization and government of so many wonder-striking objects cannot be carried on except by God. When a man sees an object, two sorts of cognitions arise in his mind, first the cognition of the nature of that objects; secondly by seeing its design, the cognition of the creator. If you find an ornament in a forest, first you will see how beautiful the ornament is then you will feel how intelligent the smith is, who has made such a pretty ornament.  In the same way the various designs visible in this wonderful creation prove that there is a mighty Lord who has created all this.


Q.-Which was made first? Man or the earth etc.

A.-The Earth etc. Without them, where could man have lived?

Q.-Was one man made in the beginning of the universe or many?

A.-Many. Whichever souls, by dint of their merits and de-merits due to their past actions, deserve to be born in the non-sexual creation, they are born at that time. The Yajurveda and its Brahamans aver that many (hundreds and thousands) were born in the beginning of creation. From the present population of the world also, it appear that men are the descendants of many parents.

Q.-Were men and other creatures born young, grown up or old in the beginning of the Universe?

A.-Fully grown-up. Had they been born young, they should have required parents to bring them up. If they had been created old, sexual intercourse being impossible, there would have been no production.

Q.-Has this universe any beginning or not?

A.-No. Just as night precedes day and day precedes night, or day follows night and night follows day, just so dissolution precedes creation and creation precedes dissolution.----.

Q.-God has given some souls the life of man; some cruel bodies of lions etc.; some, those of deer, cow and other animals; some, those of trees, insects, worms, moths etc. This imputes partiality of God.

A.-No. This inequality is due to the inequality of action in the previous cycle of creation. If God had given them these lives irrespective of their actions, God would have been partial.



            ----. No Sanskrit work writes that Aryas came from Iran. And after defeating and driving out the aborigines became the rulers of this country. How can we, then, accept the statements of foreigners?

            ----. Foreign government cannot be perfectly beneficial even when it is free from religious bias, race-prejudice and embraces parental justice and mercy. ----.


            ----. The Sanskrit word ‘shesh’ has two meanings, one serpent and the other the remainder. Some poet might have said that the earth rests on ‘shesh’ (meaning the remainder). Foolish persons might have taken it in the sense of ‘serpant’ and thought that the world rests on serpent. God is called ‘shesh’ or ‘remainder’ because He is not subject to birth and death. While all other objects are born and die ---. He is the remainder. Therefore, it has been said that the earth rests on ‘shesh’ (God, not serpant). ----.

            In the Rigveda there is another passage (X.31.8) in which ‘uksha’ has been mentioned as the supporter of the earth and the firmament. Uksha is also equivocal. It means an ox as well as the sun. Somebody seems to have mistaken uksha in the sense of ox. That silly man did not even think how an ox would be able to support the earth. As the sun supports the earth through rainfall, he is called uksha. He is holding up the earth by its power of attraction. But, there is none else than God who might support the sun and other orbs. 

----. If anybody says that mutual attraction being quite adequate, where is the necessity of postulating God, as the supporter of the universe, we would ask a question. “Is the universe infinite or finite?” If you say “infinite”, it is wrong as a bodied object can never be infinite. If “finite”, then there will be a limit of those attractions and the question will arise “who supports outside these limits?”


            ----. It (sun) holds firm all orbs through its attractions and continuous rotating in his own orbit. But, it does not revolve round any other body. In this way, Brahmaanda (solar-system) has one self-luminous and other non-luminous bodies.

            ----. Had the sun been stationary, it could not have moved from one sign of zodiac to another. Besides, such a huge thing as the sun cannot remain at one place in the space without rotating.


Q.-Have the other worlds also the same Vedas, as this world?

A.-The same. One king has one policy in all his kingdoms. Similarly, God, who is the king of kings, has the same Vedic organization in all creations of His.

Q.-When the souls and material-radica have not been made by God, He should have no right to exercise His authority over them. They are all equally independent.

A.-Just as the king and the subjects are contemporaneous and yet the king exercises his sway over the subjects, similarly God has authority over living souls and lifeless objects. When God is the creator of the world and giver of the fruit of actions of the souls, their protector and possessor of infinite power, then why should not the souls of limited power and inanimate objects be under Him? Therefore, the souls are free on their actions, but dependent on the government of God for the fruits of their actions. In this way, does almighty God create, sustain and dissolve the universe.


Chapter – IX



In this Chapter, we shall deal with knowledge, ignorance, bondage and emancipation.

----. The first phase of ne-science is to behave in the transient world as if it is eternal; to have a feeling of immortality about the mortal body, to hold beliefs that the created universe which we experience everyday has been going on since eternity and will not perish.

The second phase of ne-science is to regard as pure, the things which are impure, e.g., the body of the opposite sex, or falsehood, theft etc.

The third phase is to regard as pleasure-giving, the things which are painful, e.g., sensual indulgence.

The fourth phase is to regard as spiritual, the things which are un-spiritual.

----. Knowledge consists in knowing a thing as it is in its true nature. Ne-science is that which does not give the right notion of an object. ----. ---- holy actions, holy-devotion and pure knowledge are conductive to emancipation and unholy actions such as falsehood, unholy devotion such as idol-worship and wrong knowledge lead to bondage. ---- the only means of attaining salvation is to perform virtuous actions, e.g., truth-speaking and avoiding vicious action, e.g., lying.


Q.-….. The soul is free from vice or virtue and is the more spectator. Heat and cold etc., are the functions of the body. The self is alloy-less.

A.-The body and the internal organ are inanimate. They cannot feel or experience heat and cold.

            Heat and cold can be experienced only by a living entity – man or animal, who tries to touch them. Vital airs are also inanimate; they cannot feel hunger or thirst; hunger or thirst is felt by him who is the possessor of these vital airs. Mind is also inanimate; it cannot feel joys or sorrows; joys and sorrows are felt by the soul through the mind. The soul is happy or sorrowful by perceiving pleasant and unpleasant shapes, sounds, odours, tastes, hardness etc., through the external senses, eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin; similarly, through the fourfold internal organ-the faculties of feeling, knowing, willing and egoing, the same soul receives the internal experiences of ideation, determination, memory, egotism, etc., and is honoured or disgraced. Just as the man who commits murder with the sword, is punished and not the sword. Similarly, the soul which does good or bad deeds by means of the body, the senses, the internal organs and the vital airs gets pleasure or pain as the fruit of those deeds. The soul is not the spectator of the deeds, but their doer, and enjoyer of their fruits. The seer of the deeds is only God who has none second to Himself. The soul that does the deeds is engrossed in them and not God, the seer.


            ----. Only a bodied (corporeal) object casts reflection in another bodied object of separate existence. ----. God's reflection is meaningless for two reasons. First that He is formless and secondly, He is all pervading.


Q.-What is emancipation?

A.-Emancipation means release.

Q.-Release from what?

A.-That from which all souls wish to be released.

Q.-From which do they wish to be released?

A.-That which they need to be released from.

Q.-What do they need to be released from?

A.-From pain.

Q.-After being released from pain, what do they get and where do they live?

A.-They get happiness and live in God.

Q.-What causes emancipation and what bondage?

A.-Emancipation is the result of the following:

(i)         Obedience to the order of God.

(ii)        Avoidance of vices, ignorance, bad company, ill associations, and evil habits.

(iii)       Truthfulness, benefaction, education, impartial- justice, promotion of righteousness.

(iv)       God's worship (appreciation, prayer and realization) according to the methods dealt with above, practice of yoga, study, increase of knowledge by legitimate efforts.

(v)        Utilization of the most excellent means.

(vi)       Doing everything that is to be done in an impartial, just and righteous manner etc., etc.


A conduct contrary to that delineated above and disobedience to God's orders contribute towards bondage.


            ----. Just as in bondage it (soul) seeks the support of the physical body and physical sense-organs, similarly in emancipation, the soul enjoys bliss through its own innate powers.


            ----. Had the soul undergone a dissolution on emancipation, who would have been left to enjoy the happiness there? Those, who think that the annihilation of the soul is its emancipation are the most foolish. The emancipation of the soul consists in its release from pain and happy dwelling in blissful, all-pervading and infinite God.


            --- emancipated soul strolls, realizing its desires through divine sight and pure mind. Learned sages, who are the attainers of salvation, enjoy the bliss of rectitude by being established in the world of God i.e. in His divine effulgence and by worshipping Him who is within all. Thereby they have access to all worlds and all desires. It means that whatever world and whatever thing they desire, they get by mere contemplation. These emancipated souls quit their gross bodies and by means of thought-bodies stroll in space in God. The bodied souls cannot be exempt from worldly sufferings.


            ----. ---bondage and emancipation are not everlasting.


            --- if there be no coming back from emancipation, the place of emancipation will be too crowded. There will be importation without exportation and the population would multiply adinfinitum.

            One more point, no enjoyment of happiness is possible without its contrast with the experience of pain. No sweetness without bitterness and no bitterness without sweetness. Both are discriminated by contrast. A man does not enjoy a sweet object as much by constant and ever-continuing taste of it, as by experiencing all sorts of taste and comparing it with others.

            If God were to give infinite rewards for finite actions. His justice would be tampered with.

            It is the way of the wise that they put only so much burdens on anybody as he can bear. If you put ten maund, your action becomes condemnable.

            Similarly, it will not be proper for God to put infinite load of happiness on the soul whose powers are limited.

            {Eternality of God, eternality of soul and cyclic eternality of universe are the three main pillars of the Vedic philosophy and these three are so interlocked that one cannot stand without another. Non-eternality of emancipation is a necessary corollary to the above.

            "What begins must end" is the truth admitted by all philosophies and this dictum when applied to emancipation proves beyond doubt that the duration of emancipation period is limited at both extremities. (Tr.)}


            ----, when death takes place, all say, “Now, this very soul is the energizer, sustainer, seer, doer and enjoyer. He is ignorant who says that the soul is not the doer and the enjoyer. If there be no soul, then the inanimate objects without the soul can neither enjoy anything nor do anything.


            The fourth means is eagerness for emancipation. Just as a hungry man loves nothing but food and thirsty man loves nothing but water, similarly there should be a yearning (or burning desire) for emancipation.

            When a man is equipped with these four means, then and then alone he is a deserving candidate for emancipation.

            {From hearing up to intuition, there are four steps of attaining knowledge of anything. We begin with senses. First our ears hear. Then our mind sifts. Then judging faculty assimilates. And, in the last, the self realizes. By mentioning this in connection with emancipation Swami Dayanand means to warn against the superstition that the recitation of certain formula or hearing of lectures is by itself a means of salvation. (Tr.)}


            There are five afflictions which should be done away with, by means of yoga in order to realise God and enjoy the happiness of emancipation:

  1. Ne-science which has already been mentioned.
  2. Confounding our intellect with our self.
  3. Attachment of pleasure.
  4. Dislike for pain.
  5. Terror of death and desire to cling to the body and never to forsake it.



            As to the atheists and others who say that the dissolution of the body into various original elements after death is the only emancipation (and there is no life after death), well, such emancipation is by itself attained by dogs, asses etc., these are not emancipations but bondages ---. ----.

            {Coming of soul into body means birth and going of soul out of body means death. There is no such thing as annihilation of the soul. (Tr.)}

            ----. If you are asked what you were doing twelve years ago, in the fifth month of the thirteenth year, 9th day at 10 o'clock in what position and in what direction were your mouth, hands, ears, eyes and body and what ideas were there in your mind, you will not be able to answer. When in this very body, this oblivion takes place, then your objection on the ground of non-remembrance of the previous life is simply puerile. It is a matter of consolation that a man does not remember his past life; otherwise the painful memory of past sorrows would have put an end to his life. If a man wants to know his past or future life, he cannot, because the knowledge and nature of the soul are finite. This thing is knowable to God and not to the soul.


            ----. --- from fever or other ailment, even a lay man can infer at least so much that he must have done some irregularity on account of which the ailment has come about. Similarly, we discover in the world a peculiar difference in pain and pleasure. Why do you not infer previous life from this difference? If you deny previous life, you would impute partiality (injustice) to God. Why has He given poverty and other sorrows without any previous sins and why has He given rulership, riches etc., without the previous earnings of virtuous deeds?


            ----. If the souls were to get pleasure and pain irrespective of their good and bad deeds, God would be guilty.

            ----. After death, He might send anyone, He likes to Heaven and anyone to Hell. Why should, the, people attempt virtue? They will all be evildoers. The fruit of righteous actions would be uncertain, when everything is in the hands of God and He is to do anything He likes at His sweet will, nobody would fear sins, evil will prosper and virtue will go down. Therefore, it is clear that the present life is the result of good and bad actions of the past life and future life would be in accordance with the present as well as past lives.


            ----. When vices wax and virtues wane, the soul of a man assumes a body of lower animals. When virtues pre-dominate over vices, the soul takes up a noble body, i.e., of a learned man. When vice and virtue is equal, the soul is born as an ordinary man. Even in human lives, there are gradations, high grade, intermediate grade and low grade, according to the nature of actions. When the punishment for excessive sins has been suffered in animal lives, the soul comes back to the life of an average man.

            ----. This cycle of births and deaths continues on and on until the soul secures its emancipation by dint of good deeds, devotion and growth of knowledge. ----.



Q.-In salvation, does the soul become one with God or does it remain distinct?

A.-It remains distinct. If it were to become one, who would enjoy the happiness of salvation? Then, all the efforts done to achieve emancipation will go useless. That will not be a release, but the annihilation of the soul. The soul gets emancipation only when it obeys the injunctions of God, does virtuous action, keeps good company and practices Yoga.


---. Just as worldly pleasures are enjoyed through physical body, similarly the happiness of emancipation is enjoyed through God. That emancipated soul moves about freely in the boundless divine spirit, sees the whole universe through the purity of its knowledge, associates with other emancipated souls, looks into the order of things in creation, goes to visible and invisible worlds and intuits all things which present themselves to it. ----. Swarga (commonly known as heaven) is the name of this superb happiness.


‘The man who does with his body evil deeds such as theft, adultery, murder of good men, is born in the stationary bodies of trees etc. He, who does evil deeds through tongue gets the bodies of birds, deer etc. He who does evil deeds through mind, gets the body of low human beings.’

-Manusmriti VII/9


            ‘----. When there is cheerfulness in heart, peace in mind and transparency of intellect, we should know that sattwaguna is predominant and rajas and tamas are suppressed.’

-Manusmriti VII/27


            ‘When there is a feeling of pain and mind is agitated and though it runs at this or at that, it does not find rest, it should be noted that rajas is predominant and sat and tamas are suppressed.’

-Manusmriti VII/28


            ‘When one is engrossed in worldly pleasures, when the power of discrimination fails, when sensuality gets an upper hand, when intellect gets blunt, when nothing is discernible, we should conclude that tamas is predominant and sat and rajas are suppressed.’

-Manusmriti VII/29





We shall now, discuss the right and wrong way of living, as well as propriety of different foods.

            ‘People should always bear in mind that that path is worth accepting and following which is constantly followed by those learned men who are free from the defects of liking and disliking and which is declared as right by conscience.’

-Manusmriti II/1

            ‘If anybody says that he has no desire: whatsoever, he is wrong and if he wishes to be altogether devoid of desires, it is impossible. All actions e.g. sacrifice, truthfulness and other vows and practice of yama, niyama etc., are possible only from desire.’ {(Unless a man desires, he can do nothing.) (Tr.)}

-Manusmriti II/3


            ‘--- only that man knows what righteousness really means, who is free from greed and lust. The Vedas are a great authority for those who wish to know what righteousness is.’

-Manusmriti II/13


            ‘----. Hair on the head increases heat and dwarfs intellect.’

-Manusmriti II/65


 ‘The most important item of the good way of living is to check the senses, as a good driver checks his horses, from pernicious temptations and to direct them to right path.’

(Manusmriti II/88)

‘Sensual indulgence always leads to harm and strict control over them leads to the achievement of the goal of life.’

(Manusmriti II/93)

‘Just as fuel and butter thrown into the fire, kindles it further similarly lust increases by indulgence instead of being extinguished. Therefore, a man should never be indulgent.’

(Manusmriti II/94)


‘Control over senses consists of the following: no over joyousness on hearing of praise, no sorrow at dispraise, no pleasure at a good touch, no pain at a bad touch; no attachment to a pretty sight, no aversion at an ugly one; no joy at sumptuous meals, no murmuring at coarse food; no liking for good smell, no disliking for bad smell.’

(Manusmriti II/100)


‘Even an old man of a hundred years of age is like a child if devoid of learning and if a body is the giver of knowledge, he should be respected like an aged person. All Scriptures are of the opinion that a fool is called boyish and a learned man father.’

(Manusmriti II/153)


‘Grey hair on the head does not make a man elder. Learned men call him 'elder' who though young is learned.’

(Manusmriti II/156)


            ‘----. It is the duty of a man to do all actions that tend to the well-being of the world and to renounce all that is harmful.’

-Taittiriya Aaranyaka VII/11


            ----. If a man preserves his internal and external purity and follows the rules of conduct such as truthfulness etc., his conduct is never soiled in whatever country he may live and if he does evil things even in the Aaryavratta, he falls down in his character.


            ----. When you see no loss of religion in intercourse with low-born, mean and dirty persons as prostitutes and others and have scruples in coming in contact with excellent persons of foreign countries, what is it if not your ignorance?


            ----. Good conduct comprises of the abandonment of infatuation, aversion, injustice, falsehood and other evil habits and imbibing of non-violence, love, benevolence, gentleness etc. It should be noted down that Dharma is the concern of our soul and our dutifulness. ----.

            ----. Religious imposters think that if they would educate the people and allow them to go to foreign lands, then the latter would become wiser, would not fall into the meshes of their fraud and the former would consequently lose their importance as well as their livelihood. It is why they impose restrictions on inter-dining and fashion of dress and object to foreign travels. But, it should be strict rule with them (people going out of the country) that in no circumstances whatsoever they take flesh and wine.

            {----. Among Hindus, there are various divisions and cross-divisions of food preparation, not intelligible to foreigners. Bread, pulses, rice are called sakhari or kacha (unripe). ----. Puris, sweets, vegetables, milk preparations are nikhari or pakka (ripe). ----. This sakhari or kacha food is permissible only in one’s own sub-caste. A man belonging to another caste or sub caste will eat only nikhari or pakka food. These classifications are arbitrary, unscientific and pernicious. They have no hygienic basis. Nor have they any sanction of the Vedas and Shaastras. They were set up when dissensions between different communities became very rife. Swami Dayanand strikes a terrible blow at the root of these superstitions. (Tr.)}



----. In the homes of Aryas, cooking etc., should be done by shudraas (those men and women who could not get education). But they should observe the cleanliness of body and clothes.


There is no sense in such a thing (rendering eatables touched by shudraas as un-eatables). For whoever has eaten sugar (clarified chini or un-clarified gur) clarified butter, milk, flour, vegetables, fruit, roots etc., has, virtually, eaten food cooked and touched by everyone in the world. ----.


The substances harmful to intellect should never be used, nor foods rotten, decomposed, producing bad smell, ill-cooked or cooked by flesh-eaters, whose bodies are permeated with particles of meat and liquor. Such foods are also to be avoided which can be got by killing useful animals. ----. Add both and it comes to 475600 men satisfied at one time by one cow in one generation. If succeeding generations are also taken into calculation it comes to a very huge figure. Moreover, oxen are very useful to men for transport purposes of various types. The milk of cow is of special nutritive value. Buffaloes too are equally useful. But cow milk is far more useful for brain than buffalo-milk. It is why Aryas have held the cows most valuable. So will others do if they are wise. A goat satisfies 2920 individuals in her life time. Elephants, horses, camels, sheep, asses are also very serviceable. Those who kill these animals should be considered guilty of so many men's murder. During the rule of the Aryas, no slaughter was allowed of cows or other serviceable animals.


----. All foods that are obtained by slaughter, theft, faithlessness, deceit, fraud etc., are improper, (not usable or forbidden) and those obtained by non-violence, honesty and other good means are proper (usable). Those articles of food which are conducive to health, prevention and cure of diseases, development of intellect, strength and energy, and longevity, e.g. wheat, fruit, root, tuber, milk, butter, sweets etc., should be properly cooked and proportionately mixed and meals should be taken at proper times and in proper quantity. These articles which do not suit individual constitutions should also be avoided and those which suit should be taken. All this comes under the heading, 'propriety of foods'.


            ----. Everybody feels aversion while touching urine or faeces of another person; while no such aversion is felt when a man washes his own mouth, nose, ears, eyes and excretory organs. This shows that these customs are not against laws of nature. Everyman ought to avoid the leavings of others.

Q.-Should even husband and wife not eat the leavings of each other?

A.-No. They too have different constitutions and tempraments.


Q.-You wash your kitchen with cow-dung. Why do you not use human faeces for the purposes? Why not the kitchen is made unclean by the use of cow-dung?

A.-Cow-dung does not give out bad smell as human matter. Cow-dung has a special kind of greasiness and does not come off so soon. Nor does it spoil clothes. Dry cow-dung does not give out dirt as dust does. Cow-dung and earth mixed make a good plaster and the kitchen washed thereby looks pleasing to the eye. ----. If the floor is cemented it should be daily washed.


            If Brahmanas and high class men waste their time in cooking food, cleansing utensils, or washing kitchen, no progress can be made in knowledge or other advantageous pursuits. ----royal families of the Aryavratta came into matrimonial and other relations with the people of Kabul, Kandhara, Iran, America, Europe and other countries ----. For in those days, there was one Vedic Dharma in the whole world and all had faith in it. They sympathized with each other in pleasure and pain; profit and loss. There was happiness in the whole world. Now, multiplicity of religions has led to much unhappiness and great discord. It is the duty of wise men to find means to end it. May God sow in our minds the seed of true religion that false religions may disappear and wise men may give up their hostilities and increase happiness.


            ----. He, who will not ponder over it properly is likely to be confounded. It is the duty of the learned men to find pleasure in investigating what is truth and what is untruth and then in adopting the former and rejecting the latter. Those, who are ever prepared to grasp good points and acquire learning, they indeed achieve the four-fold aim of life i.e. righteousness, prosperity, enjoyment and emancipation.





Arayans, whom we call our ancestors used to begin their days by doing ‘Sandhaya’. Sandhaya means to meditate and think over the attributes, actions and nature of God in such a way that we realize the existence of supreme power of universe within ourselves and within our society. Whole karm of doing sandhaya can be divided into three parts-one is physical which comprises of certain rituals like bathing, sitting in a particular way, taking in (sipping) small quantity of water etc., the second is vocal i.e. citing certain mantras while doing above mentioned rituals, the third is mental i.e. thinking of the hidden meanings behind all the actions and thinking of the attributes, actions and Nature of God. Out of the three, the third part is most important. If this part is not done well, then, whole of sandhaya becomes a mere ritual and this karm fails to produce requisite results. First two parts are mere preparation for enjoying the bliss of God.

Why should sandhaya be done and what is the benefit of doing sandhaya?

                        Sandhaya is not done for pleasing God. God is beyond pain or pleasure. God is blissful and this attribute of bliss cannot be separated from Him. Neither we can please Him by doing sandhaya nor does He become angry with non-doers of sandhaya.

            Like we take food in order to kill our hunger, in the same way, sandhaya is done for health of our mind and spirit. God is a complete, the purest and the greatest living entity. By thinking of Him, our mind will automatically become pure. If our mind gets pure, then we will not be able to do impure and wrong acts. If we can keep ourselves away from bad deeds, then we will not suffer from pain or misery. If we do not do sandhaya, then our mind will get engrossed in worldly thoughts and we will not be able to constraint ourselves from doing bad deeds.

            This fact can be verified by you with ease. If you leave a good company, then slowly, you will start moving in a bad company and your thoughts will become like that of your company. When we think of God, our mind fails to occupy itself with bad / filthy thoughts. This is the real benefit of doing sandhaya.

            You go in a garden of roses for a walk. Fragrance of roses will soothe your body. You are there not to please roses or to have a share in their fragrance but you are benefitted by going in the company of roses. By going there, you are not doing any favour to roses but instead you owe them for soothing you. Similarly, when we sit in the company of God and start thinking about His greatness, we tend to start loving Him. With the generation of love towards God, one starts hating badness. Servant of an ideal person naturally hates ills.

            Upasana of God generates power and will / courage to fight ills. People, who think that by doing Upasana of God, He forgives the sins committed by the doer, do not understand the spirit of doing Upasana (communion). Such a belief has deviated people from reality and because of such belief many upasaks (persons doing upasana) tilt towards ills. We must remember that God is just and He rewards or punishes people in accordance with their acts. He does not accept any sort of bribe.  Upasana or sandhaya is not a bribe. Certain upasaks start complaining to God on receiving certain pain or misery. Perhaps they have the notion that upasaks never receive pain or misery. Actually, upasana enhances the power of the upasak to endure pain or misery received as a result of his bad deeds. Pains or miseries received by a person are fruits of sins committed by him. An upasak, who eats bad things cannot abstain himself from the result of bad eating. Pain or misery received by a person is a blessing in disguise because actual welfare of a person can be known by God alone and all punishments given by God have the ultimate objective of welfare of man. But, generally, man fails to understand as to how pain or misery received by him is for his welfare. We can say that pain or misery received by man is because of his narrow-mindedness. Rather, God’s blessings on man are endless.

How can the methodology adopted in sandhaya benefit man?

            There are following three methods to know a thing:

  1. To move from near to far-first section of sandhaya follows this method to know God.
  2. To move from simple to complex-second section of sandhaya follows this method to know God.
  3. To move from known to unknown-third & last section of sandhaya follows this method to know God.



     Purpose of doing sandhaya is not to please God. He is complete in all respects. Neither His happiness gets increased by doing sandhaya nor gets diminished by not doing it. Purpose of doing sandhaya is to purify the soul by destroying the evils present in it. 

     Though, every second of our lives should be filled with the thought of God, but this rite of sandhaya should be done twice a day only i.e. when the Sun rises and when the Sun sets. Other times of the day, we should be busy in performing our duties.

     God meets only those souls, who are pure. How can God meet a person, who is engrossed in malpractices (in the world also, a person does not like to speak to a thief of his article until & unless the thief agrees not to repeat the act of theft). Two things having different natures do not meet. We do sandhaya so that our natures meet with that of God.

     If a person gives us sweets only once, we feel indebted or obliged to him. Likewise, by doing sandhaya, we express thankfulness to God, who has provide us with these bodies & other articles for its satisfaction. There is no sin greater than ungratefulness.

     Sandhaya mantras have been compiled by maharishi Swami Dayanand out of vedic literature. Almost in the end of this holy rite, he has added a prayer from his own side. Beginning of this rite has been made with the gayatri mantra, wherein best of intellect is prayed for. For the purpose of analysis and better understanding the concept of Sandhaya, whole of Sandhaya Mantras have been divided into four segments. ‘Shanno Devi….’ Mantra (Yajurved 36/12) is repeated in the beginning of third segment and gayatri mantra is repeated almost in the end of the fourth segment before making final prayer & before recitation of salutation mantra.


First Segment


ओं भूर्भुवः स्वः---न प्रचोदयात्॥                               -Yajurved 36/3

Meaning-O savior God! You create the bodies of all beings, relieve the pains of your worshippers, bring happiness & pleasure to your worshippers. You, being master of all living and non-living things existing in this universe, are worth acceptance. You are destroyer of all reasons of pains. You are light-house for all souls. We meditate over all these attributes of yours. Please inspire our intellects towards good qualities, actions & nature i.e. bestow goodness in our intellects.                                                                                                                                                                  

Explanation-Since, gayatri mantra is very sacred, sandhaya is started and ended with the thoughts enshrined in this mantra. The purpose of citing this mantra is not to pronounce it like a parrot but to help the worshippers to lift the level of their intellects and to help them to channelize their intellectual power in the right direction. A worship should possess three things. Firstly, it should clearly explain the attributes of God. Secondly, during worship the worshipper should feel the continuous increase in his love for God. Thirdly, it should help the worshipper in his spiritual advancement. Gayatri mantra possesses all these three things. Here, we mention three thoughts of this mantra. Firstly, God has been called as ‘inspirer’. God does not infuse any particular thought in a soul. Once, soul has brought certain thought in his mind, God classifies that thought to be ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Generation of feelings of enthusiasm , boldness & happiness refer that the ‘thought’ is good and worth following & generation of feelings of fear, doubt and unpleasantness refer that the ‘thought’ is bad and should not be acted upon. This is how God inspires souls. Secondly, God has been said to be worth acceptance. An illumined thing not only enlightens itself but also removes darkness because of its brightness. God’s luminance is not any passive attribute rather it has the potential to burn off all the evils and make His worshippers pure. Thirdly, in this mantra, God is prayed for inspiring our intellect towards our well-being. Between race of ‘man’ and races ‘lower than man’, the only difference is that of intellect. Races lower than man have to lead their lives with the given intellect. They do not possess the option of increasing that. This option is available to man only. The notion that intellect is a great hurdle in realisation of God is very wrong and very unfortunate. In the company of God, capability of our intellects should increase otherwise, such a company can be said to be meaningless.

ओं शन्नो देवीरभिष्टय---स्रवन्तु नः॥                       -Yajurved 36/12

Meaning-O possessor of all divine qualities and savior God! You may be helpful in attaining our wanted pleasures and bliss. You may bestow happiness from all sides on us.


Explanation-Key-word of this mantra is ‘contentment’. God has created the Sun for giving light for the benefit of souls but the sun-light will be of no use for the souls, who close their eyes. As such, total benefit of all the things created by God can be had by us only if we add our contribution too, in this benevolent act in the form of ‘contentment’. All the benevolence of God cannot yield happiness or pleasure to us if we fail to accept that benevolence with a feeling of gratefulness. A few more examples are cited to make this concept clear. Mother feeds her child tasty food only. Now, for realizing or feeling the taste of the food, a lot depends upon the mental aptitude of the child. Similarly, when one has fever, sweets taste bad not because of their bad preparation but because fever had affected the taste buds adversely. So, this mantra prepares our minds to feel the benevolence of God, showered on us and be grateful to God for His such acts.

ओं वाक् वाक्---ओं करतलकरपृष्ठे॥

Meaning- O savior God! By your grace, I may have healthy & strong speaking ability, tastefulness, internal (prana) power, smelling ability, seeing ability & hearing ability. By your grace, I may have healthy & strong navel (centre of the body), heart, throat, head, both of my arms & hands. Also, all these organs of my body may become reason of my pride.

Explanation-It is very difficult to understand that God is near as well as far. Through this mantra, we can easily realise that for seeing God, we need not go to a far off place. We see the existence of God in the various organs of our body, which are nearest to our souls. Though, our ‘Man’ goes outward but there are no more lovable things than the various organs of our bodies. For that reason, it becomes very easy to concentrate our ‘Man’ on various organs of the body.  All these organs speak of kindness of God. God is creator of our bodies. We have not made even a single hair. It is similar to the fact that the light given by an electric bulb is that of the electricity and not of bulb. Likewise, all the organs of our bodies illumine because of power of God otherwise, these are nothing more than bundles of flesh.

            Meditating over greatness of God in various organs of our bodies is the first step of the journey to God. It is like reaching the far off place by starting from the nearest place.

            If you happen to ask a child as to the abode of God, he will simply point towards upward direction as if God resides there. Sandhaya resolves this issue.

 ओं भूः पुनातु---पुनातु सर्वत्र॥

Meaning-O base of all beings! Purify my head. O reliever of the pains of your worshippers! Purify my eyes. O, bearer of happiness & pleasure to your worshippers! Purify my throat. O great and adorable by all! Purify my heart. O creator of universe! Purify my navel. O knowledgeable and yielder of pains to wrong-doers! Purify my feet. O ultimate truth & changeless God! I request you to purify my head again. O all-present God! Purify all organs of my body.

Explanation-This mantra aims at purification or cleansing of different organs of the body.  Health of our body is our prime mean for attaining the purpose of life. Flaws of a thing can be divided into two parts---physical and non-physical. Physical flaws can be removed through external cleansing or external medication but non-physical flaws cannot be removed without understanding the purpose of creation of that thing. For example, flaws of a watch can be divided into two parts namely, physical and non-physical. Removal of its physical flaws refer to proper maintenance of its different parts whereas removal of its non-physical flaws refer to curbing the misuse of time.

           For appropriate & optimum use of a thing, it is necessary that we look towards the maker of that thing. God is the creator of our bodies. We can remove the impurities of our various organs only by meditating on God.

            In this mantra, various prayers are made to God. In each prayer, while citing a specific attributes of God, He has been requested to cleanse a specific organ of our body. For better understanding this mantra, we need to comprehend the link between the specific attributes of God and the respective organ of the body, cleansing of which has been prayed for.

            In the first part of this mantra, God’s attribute of base-of-all beings has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the head. God’s this attribute can be known only through head (instrument of thinking). Head, which lacks power to think or in other words, head, which cannot understand the base or spirit of a thing is faulty. Only that head is meaningful, which can understand the entity of God. As such, God is prayed for removing the impurities, obstructing the head to comprehend God.

            In the second part of this mantra, God’s attribute of reliever of the pains of worshippers has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the eyes. Here, eyes are meant to represent all our senses. If our senses are capable of reaching the ultimate truth behind whatever they perceive, they can very much obviate pains coming to the soul. It is also said that eyes, which are not able to see greatness of God in a flower are ill. In this direction, God has been requested to purify all our sense-organs.

            In the third part of this mantra, God’s attribute of bearer of happiness & pleasure to worshippers has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the throat. Throat is an instrument of the body to decide about its tastes. A thing to be good or bad depends upon purity of the throat. Different people have different tastes. Throat, to which taste of God’s bliss is not enjoyable or does not bring happiness & pleasure is ill. Worshipper intends to develop taste for Godly thinking and as such, the request for purification of throat.

            In the fourth part of this mantra, God’s attribute of greatness and adorability has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the heart. If God is generous & open-hearted, then how can His worshipper be narrow-hearted? Heart, which is narrow in its approach is ill. Man, to be a theist is required to be generous and think of the welfare of others. As such, generous God is requested to remove selfishness from the heart.

            In the fifth part of this mantra, God’s attribute of creation of universe has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the navel (babies are attached with the navel of their parents in the beginning of their lives). God does not create any impure thing. Accordingly, worshippers of God cannot make any impure thing, which is harmful for others’ physical & mental health. As such, God is requested to purify the navel i.e. to be able to create only those things, which are for the ultimate welfare of others.

            In the sixth part of this mantra, God’s attribute of yielding of pains to wrong-doers i.e. generation of movements has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the feet. We move with the help of our feet. Idleness is a big ill. We pray to God for purification of our feet so that their movement aims at welfare of others only. This objective can be achieved only if feet move for bringing pain to the wrong-doers.

            In the seventh part of this mantra, God’s attribute of being ultimate truth & changelessness have been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify the head again. If the head is ill, then all the other organs of the body become meaningless. A blind man of high thinking is better than an insane with eyes. A beautiful, powerful & strong mad man is a problem for himself & others. Mentioning of the ‘head’ twice in this mantra is indicative of importance of this organ.

            In the eighth part of this mantra, God’s attributes of omnipresence has been cited alongwith requesting Him to purify all organs of the body. A body is not just a combination of different organs. God is present everywhere. He is present in whole of our bodies too. As such, He has been requested to remove all the flaws of the body.

ओं भूः---ओं सत्यम्॥

Meaning- O God! You are base of all beings.  You are reliever of the pains of your worshippers. You are bearer of happiness & pleasure to your worshippers. You are great and adorable by all. You are creator of all living & non-living things of this universe. You are knowledgeable and yielder of pains to wrong-doers. You are ultimate truth & changeless.

            In this segment, since, after God, our bodies are nearest to our soul, we try to realise God in our bodies. As, if a person continuously gives us gifts, then after a time period, we get attracted towards that fellow. On seeing that fellow, we immediately are attracted towards the attribute for which that fellow is giving gifts. In the similar way, when we look at bestowing kindness by God in various organs of our bodies, we straightforwardly get attracted towards God and His attributes. Many scholars agree that bad & good behaviour affect our bodily health. And sandhaya directly inculcates good behaviour in us. So, we can say that sandhaya is good for our physical health, too.

            First segment of sandhaya ends here. Unfortunately, spirit of these mantras has been ignored by most of the doers of this rite, instead, they have concentrated on certain physical movements only.

            Feeling the existence of God in our bodies generates devotion to God and resolves various wrong notions about hell & heaven. Persons, who feel existence of God in their bodies get freed from the unnecessary faiths in sanctity of particular places. They do not feel the need of idols for thinking of God. It is true that big temples take you to their engineers but is your nostril, which helps you breath, not more educational? 

            It is true that ‘Man’ (heart including intellect) is very fast and it moves from one thing to another very quickly. Our body offers a good place to ‘Man’ for switching over from one organ to another including their intricacies. For thinking, the area, offered by our body is so vast that ‘Man’ soon gets tired from moving from one place to another. Then, this tired ‘Man’ gets no place to rest but in God. The only thing is, we should develop a habit of making our ‘Man’ think over different organs of our body. The best mean of concentrating our ‘Man’ is ‘thought’.

            Generally, it is said that ‘Man’ should be made to think internally, leaving the external objects. It is the nature of ‘Man’ to think of forbidden things. As such, ‘Man’ should be persuaded to think of a particular thing, instead of forbidding it to think of a particular thing. It is like a naughty horse, who allows to be controlled by that person only, who rides him & who does not keep him idle. ‘Man’ should be habituated to think of creator of bodies i.e. God.

Second Segment

            After body, we try to realise greatness of God in the universe. Our bodies are related with our souls only, but this universe is common for many souls. This segment consists of three mantras, which talk of creation of this huge universe. The spirit of these mantras is--- Extend the horizon of your thinking by realizing that the light of God, which you see in your body is present also in other objects of the universe.

            What is the need of shifting our thinking from our body to the universe? Our bodies are only a segment of this huge universe. Like a segment is always dependent on the whole, in the same way, our bodies are dependent on this universe. Our eyes expect the Sun, our breathing is dependent on air and likewise. By thinking of universe, we get connected with big things of it.

            Thinking of universe is necessary also, for establishing a relation with other beings of the universe. Your eyes are means of your seeing only, dog’s eyes are mean for him only but the Sun is yours as well as that of dog. It is common for all the beings of the universe As such, in this segment of sandhaya, we get enlarged by breaking the limitations of our bodies. Since, it is only after feeling the body that we can feel the universe, we start sandhaya by feeling the body. As we cannot understand the universe without understanding the body, in the same way, without knowledge of the universe, our knowledge of the body cannot be complete.

            Everything of the universe is also present in the body. As there are rivers in the universe, similarly, there are blood vessels in the body.

            We get a different sort of joy on feeling the hugeness of this universe. Suppose, you are imprisoned in a small house, where every sort of necessity for maintenance of life is made available. But, after a few days, you will be tired of the house & provisions. If you are freed from that prison, you get joy not because of the increase in the provisions but because of immenseness of the space. Likewise, birds get a different sort of joy in flying in an immense or large sky. As such, in order to enlarge our mind, we need to think of this universe.

            These mantras, in no way, pardon the sins committed by a person. In no circumstance, actions of a person can go without giving any fruit. Our thought patterns do not prevent fire from burning, poison to act accordingly etc. As a diseased person takes medicines to cure his existing ailment or to avoid the ailments in future and not for any of his past disease, in the same way these mantras are cited not for avoiding fruits of past actions but for betterment of our present actions or for avoidance of the mistakes, in future.

            As water is not just a five letter word but the thing, which is meant by this word, in the same way, different things of the world are meanings of the words used for them in the Vedas. Relation between a word and its meaning is eternal and it, too, gets manifested with the manifestation of prakriti (manifestation of prakriti is creation and non-manifestation of prakriti is dissolution). Without Godly knowledge, it was impossible for man to know any language, literature etc. It is very wrong to presume that man has developed to its present state without knowledge given by God.

            Reason of citing these mantras of this segment, as given by swami Rameshawaranand is, “Souls need to realise that master or owner of this universe is God. He has created this universe for the use of souls. As in the world, we do not possess the right to harm the property of another, in the same way, souls, too, should understand their rights towards usage of the things of the universe. Through these mantras, a feeling gets developed in the upasak (travellor on the path of God realisation) that his body is not his own and this feeling prevents him from doing any injustice to his body and bodies of other beings.”

 ओम् ऋतं च---समुद्रो अर्णवः॥                         -Rigved 10/190/1

Meaning-O God! Because of your endless knowledge and capability, this universe & ultimate knowledge in the form of vedas were got produced. Out of that capability of yours, the night, when whole of the nature goes into its original state was got produced. Thereafter, because of same capability of yours, all celestial bodies were created.


Explanation-A creator must possess two things---knowledge & capability to act. What will a clock-maker make if he does not know how to make a clock? Also, one, who knows, though, how to make a clock cannot make a clock if he is incapable of making. God has both of these attributes necessary for creation.

          Before creation of universe, the state was not similar to nothing. Prakriti existed at that time too, but in an un-manifested state. God is said to be the cause of creating movement in original state of prakriti and as an effect of this movement, prakriti got manifested and this universe came into existence.

           It is a foolish idea that this universe was got created automatically or accidentally. If it could be true, then there would not have been any need of a carpenter for making a chair, a mason for building a house, a tailor for stitching a shirt etc.

          Now, we dwell upon the two words namely, ‘Rit’ and ‘satya’ used in this mantra. Generally, both of these words are used to mean one & the same thing i.e. truth. But these terms are not interchangeable. Here, in this mantra the term ‘satya’ is used to mean various things of the universe., ‘Rit’ can be said to be the base of ‘satya’. There cannot be any ‘satya’ without existence of ‘Rit’. Below, we cite certain examples of ‘Rit’ and that of ‘satya’.

Examples of ‘Rit’

  1. Two and three make five.
  2. Every man, who takes birth dies.
  3. Water flows downwards.

Examples of ‘satya’

  1. Two dogs and three dogs make five dogs.
  2. Krishna took birth and died.
  3. I threw water from the glass and it started moving in the downward direction.

          On studying the above mentioned examples of ‘Rit’ and that of ‘satya’ carefully, it will be clear that ‘Rit’ refers to the basic rules, which can be applied on more than one thing / individual. Whereas ‘satya’ is applied on a specific thing (s) / individual (s). So, ‘Rit’ is very vast and subtler than ‘satya’.

          ‘Rit’ exists in the mind of the creator whereas ‘satya’s existence is different from that of the creator. Suppose, a potter says that he has two pots and the total number of pots with him will be five after he makes three more pots. In this statement of the potter, the knowledge of the rule that when three similar things are added to two things, the total comes to five, already existed in the mind of the potter, even before his making three more pots. As such, ‘Rit’ refers to the rules and ‘satya’ refers to the specific object or specific event. Rules termed as ‘Rit’ are eternal. Their existence is not dependent on the existence of the things. ‘Satya’ are the things, which get manifested and destroyed (un-manifested). But, the things get manifested and destroyed (un-manifested) in a flow. Accordingly, it can be said that flow of things, too, is eternal.

          Before creation of the universe, ‘Rit’ existed in the mind of the creator. Knowledge of ‘Rit’ is inherent in the nature of God. The things or the events of the universe are manifestation of ‘Rit’. Various things of the universe are created because of God’s capability of bringing change in the original state of prakriti (nature) but change is brought in accordance with certain rules or principles. There is nothing in this world, which is not bound by certain principles (This fact can be helpful in understanding that God cannot do whatever He likes i.e. He cannot be unjust etc.).

          Knowledge is eternal whereas the things of the universe meet their ends. Only through mortal things, we can know eternal knowledge. Creation of the world is manifestation of the eternal knowledge of the creator. The things do not exist before their creation and they do not remain existent after their destruction. But the principles on the basis of which the things are created remain forever. The purpose of science is to find out the principles behind existence of a thing so that with the help of those principles, other things can be created by man for his help in a specific field.

          God, after generation of movements in the original state of prakriti does not pass on the work of creation to some other entity. He remains present both in the cause as well as in the effect.

          In this mantra, the original state of nature has been referred to as ‘night’ & creation of various celestial bodies (including all the things of the world) have been talked of. Every particle moves from the position of rest. Day comes after night. There are specific principles of ‘rest’ as well as that of ‘movement’ which are dealt with in the sciences of ‘statics’ and ‘dynamics’. Here, too, the fact that for movement, rest is necessary, has been emphasized.

 समुद्रादर्णवादधि संवत्सरो---मिषतो वशी॥                   -Rigved 10/190/2

Meaning-After creation of all celestial bodies, God created time (year, month, hour etc.). O God! You created day & night and their parts, out of your natural characteristics.                                                                                                                                                                       

Explanation-God has not just created the celestial bodies but has incited certain movements, too, in them, in accordance with certain rules or principles. It is because of movement of earth around its axis that day, night, hour, minutes etc. are felt.

          Creation is the very nature of God. For creation, He does not need any organ like hands etc. As soul of a person is able to control his hands, feet etc. without any mean, in the same way, God is able to control different things of the universe (manifested or un-manifested) without any mean.

          When it is said that God has done all these out of His naturalness, then it is meant that He is controller of not only the non-living objects but also that of the living objects. Since, the non-living objects do not have any type of feeling, it is very easy to control them. Inert objects do not make any sort of interference in the system. But, living objects behave in a very opposite way. For example, it is easier to weigh the stones than frogs. God has controlled living objects by development of feeling of time in them. 

 सूर्याचनद्रमसौ धाता---चान्तरिक्षमथो स्वः॥                                                      -Rigved 10/190/3    

Meaning-God! You are creator, maintainer and destroyer of this universe. You have created all the celestial bodies of the universe and different things in the celestial bodies, out of your endless capability in accordance with or similar to earlier creations.


Explanation-Theists, who do not know ‘vedic dharm’ fail to answer the questions like---is this creation of universe the first attempt of God? , when did God create earlier universe? , is there any relation between earlier universes & this universe & what is that relation? There is always a relation among a person’s past, present and future karms (actions) (on seeing a person reading in Hindi, we can easily conclude that in the past that person must had learned Hindi). Similarly, on seeing this universe, we can know the attributes of God.

            Creation of universe is not like a magic, which is not bound by the relation of cause & effect. For making ornaments of gold, a jeweller needs gold, the knowledge of making the ornament & the time period necessary for making the ornament. But a magician does not require gold etc. for making the ornament. A magician shows in his tricks that he can produced a thing without any material cause. But God is not a magician. He cannot create anything without a material cause. God makes rain. For that He needs clouds, water-vapours, water & heat. He needs a time period also, for conversion of water into water-vapours. The people of other religions believe that God is capable of creating anything out of nothing like a magician. If He wills, he can create a child without father, can bring a child in this world through nose of a person & the like. But ‘vedic dharm’ does not accept such notions. Ved says that it is the nature of God to create. He always goes on creating & destroying. Is there any difference among various universes of different times? As every day is new but it is same with respect to the Sun, the Earth etc., in the same way every universe is new but it is basically same with respect to different things of the universe.

Like the creator, His creation too, is endless. Universe exists beyond our imagination. 

ओं शन्नो देवीरभिष्टय---स्रवन्तु नः॥                         -Yajurved 36/12, Repeatation              

  Meaning-O possessor of all divine qualities and savior God! You may be helpful in attaining our wanted pleasures and bliss. You may bestow happiness from all sides on us.


Explnation to this mantra is given in the beginning of sandhaya.

Third Segment

            After feeling God in our body & then in the universe, in this segment of sandhaya, we feel Him in our society. If members of a society do not have faith in God, then it (society) soon gets destroyed by losing its base. A person, who does not have faith in God, is more prone to evils.

            With the body, a person has his individual relation. His relatives or other persons cannot claim his body to be theirs. But, the things of the universe like the sun, the earth etc. are common to various beings. A king as well as a dog living in the palace of that king may say that the sun is theirs. This commonality is the base of civic & social life.

            In this segment, emphasis has been laid on the fact that as existence of God is evident in the body and in the universe, in the same way, the effect of existence of God is seen in the human society. As for seeing, merely the presence of the Sun does not suffice, the person must have healthy eyes too. In the same way, if soul of a person is not healthy, then he cannot be benefitted by benevolence of God in the form of worldly objects. For this reason, in these mantras, we think of the master of the world and the worldly powers.

            Existence of living beings is more crucial than the existence of non-living beings for the reason of presence of ‘will’ in the living beings.  The difference in ‘willingness’ of the people has created a number of problems in the human society. The basic reason of these problem is man’s continuous attempt to control the things of the universe. Like one’s own heart, the preachers of different religions, too, advise man to live brotherly with the fellow beings but man does not give regard to the advice of his heart or that of the different teachers. 

            Now, the questions arise- can upasana (worship) of God diminish the problems of human society?, can devotion to God bring favourable changes in the behaviour of man towards his fellow beings? & if yes, then how?

            Out of their experience, many people believe that if this world could be freed from the so called devotees of God, then more than half of the problems of human society will be resolved. Most of the hatred found in the human society is generated by preachers of different religions. Then, can this ill-will get diminished? Yes! Of course. It is possible, if we realise that there is an entity, which restricts the human independence to act, out of man’s ill-will & does not let it go beyond a certain limit.

            In this segment of sandhaya, there are six mantras consisting of three parts. Second & third part of these six mantras are same. In the first part, each mantra refers to a specific direction-front, back, right, left, below & above.  Upasak or meditator thinks of all these six directions, surrounding him, in his mind and tries to see the powers of God, which are there to help him and thereafter realises that he is not alone to move in the world but there is a companion in all these directions. In the first part of all these mantras, name of the specific direction, specific attribute of God as master of that direction & specific means of helping us have been talked of. In the second part, upasak salutes all these. In the third part, he places the hatred of his enemies and that of his own in the justice of God without directly doing anything towards their (enemies’) destruction. This does not mean forbiddance of exertion on the part of the individual. For understanding this concept, let’s take the help of an example. In the regime of a good king, ruled have full faith in the king and if someone happens to put hurdles in their work, their problems are solved merely by bringing the matter in the knowledge of the king without attempting to take law of the land in their hands. They have full faith in the justice and power of their king. Actually, every good regime is an imitation of God’s rule. God has created certain rules for the smooth functioning of human-societies, living in His regime.  God & His rules are supportive of good people only. Bad people may in the beginning, seem to be grabbing success but actually, rules of God are such that the badness of theirs destroys the very roots of their happiness & pleasure.

            In these mantras, a great lesson has been taught. As God does our welfare through the inert things of the universe, in the same way, God’s principles rule the minds of members of human society also. A feeling about the relation among human-beings, the human-society and God has been developed in all these six mantras. All the members of the human society are bound by their duties with respect to their position etc. in the society and the society tries to force its members to accept such dependences by execution of penalties.

            God is everywhere but this fact has been explained by naming six directions namely, front, back, right, left, up, & down and associating each of these directions with a particular attribute of God. We must understand the mystery behind association of a particular direction with a particular attribute of God.

            For progress of a society, there are three reasons. One is faith in God, second is bevaviour devoid of hatred of the members of the society towards other beings and the third reason is appropriate use of the natural things of the universe by the members towards fulfilment of their own purposes (in a good society, there is no conflict between purpose of the society and that of its members). In these mantras, we pray to God that harmful elements existing in all the directions may become beneficial to our society. Even, the existence of bad elements have a definite role to play in the holistic purpose of existence of universe. The difference in a good society and bad society is that a good society appropriately places its different elements with due regard to their capabilities so that they happen to be beneficial to the society whereas a bad society fails to place its different elements appropriately. Instead of hating the bad elements, we pray to God that they improve their future by lessening their badness and in the process prove beneficial to the society.

          A true devotion to God makes the upasak great and generates a capability in him to make others better. An upasak must feel God around him and should love the beings, who may not love him.

ओं प्राची दिगग्निरधिपतिरसितो---जम्भे दध्मः॥                      -Atharv Ved 3/27/1    

Meaning-O all-knowing God! You are master of our frontal direction. You are free from all sorts of bondages and you are our savior in all respects. Sun-rays, pran energy, knowledge and your rules are means of ending darkness of nescience (non-knowledge) and saving our lives.

            O God! We salute you for all these attributes. O master of this universe! We salute you. O savior God! We salute you. O God! We salute you for being bearer of pains to the wrong-doers.

            Others may hate us because of their unknowledge (non-knowledge) and we may hate others because of our unknowledge. We place this hatred in your just laws for the purpose of its (hatred’s) destruction.


Explanation-Our frontal direction has been associated with God’s attribute of omniscience. This means that we should always place knowledge in front of us so that we are not indulged in a bad act. Here, in this mantra, God has been named as ‘Agni’. In the physical world, ‘Agni’ means ‘fire’. The purpose, which is served by fire in darkness, is served by ‘faith on God’ in difficult times. In the light of the Sun, we are able to know a thing perfectly as it is. Sun-rays are nothing but representative of God in the human-society and rescues us from harms.

ओं दक्षिणा दिगिन्द्रो---जम्भे दध्मः॥                      -Atharv Ved 3/27/2

Meaning-O God! You are omnipotent and owner of all pleasure-giving means. You are master of the direction falling on our right. You save us from the beings, having ill-mentality. Our parents and learned fellows save us all our lives from falling in the pits.

            O God! We salute you for all these attributes. O master of this universe! We salute you. O savior God! We salute you. O God! We salute you for being bearer of pains to the wrong-doers.

            Others may hate us because of their unknowledge and we may hate others because of our unknowledge. We place this hatred in your just laws for the purpose of its destruction.


Explanation-Direction to our right has been associated with God’s attribute of omnipotence. Here, God has been called ‘Indra’ which means power. When in worldly parlance, we say that a particular person is our right hand, then we refer to power & capability of that person. Who, other than God, can be our right hand? Here, in this direction, our parents and learned fellows are our saviours. Power of ‘Indra’ can be rightfully used by learned fellows only. At spiritual level, God is said to be our father and at the social level, the persons, who become reasons of existence of our bodies are called fathers. Capability comes with experience. As blind men are very unfortunate for not being able to take the help of sun-light, in the same way, that society is very unfortunate, which does not take the assistance of experience of learned fellows.

प्रतीची दिग्वरुणोअधिपति---जम्भे दध्मः॥                     -Atharv Ved 3/27/3  

Meaning-O God! You are ruler of this universe. You are master of the direction falling on our backs. You save us from all sorts of evils. O God! You are beginningless and our all-time savior. Divine powers like electricity etc. save us all our lives.

            O God! We salute you for all these attributes. O master of this universe! We salute you. O savior God! We salute you. O God! We salute you for being bearer of pains to the wrong-doers.

            Others may hate us because of their unknowledge and we may hate others because of our unknowledge. We place this hatred in your just laws for the purpose of its destruction.


Explanation- Direction on our back has been associated with God’s attribute of being ruler of this universe. Here, God has been called ‘Varun’ which means ruler. God rules this universe through His various unseen laws. In the world, we see that police or other machinery take note of all the activities of bad men without the knowledge of these people. As soon as, a person breaks a law, he is caught by the law of land. Similarly, it should never be understood that we can escape the laws of God. Good people, too, are helped by these laws. In the world, we see that a sense of security gets generated in the people merely by knowing about efficiency of police. The purpose of all these laws is welfare of beings and food (it includes intake of all the things necessary for our sustenance e.g. wheat, rice water, air etc.) is a great mean towards fulfilling this purpose. That society is very fortunate, where there is no shortage of food items. A good & intelligent administrator is duty-bound to obviate any shortage of food items. God, being master of this universe has provided plenty of food items for sustenance of various beings.

            We should always remember that in the frontal direction, our savior is light of knowledge and in the backward direction, our savior is food or money and as such, we must concentrate on earning money but not with disregard to knowledge. Money earned without knowledge destroys a society.

उदीची दिक् सोमोअधिपतिः---जम्भे दध्मः॥                      -Atharv Ved 3/27/4        

Meaning- O God! You are blissful and creator of this universe. You are master of the direction falling on our left side. O God! You are beginningless and our all-time savior. Idle persons may leave their bad habit of depending on others and may act as savior of the human-society. Divine powers like electricity etc. save us all throughout our lives.

            O God! We salute you for all these attributes. O master of this universe! We salute you. O savior God! We salute you. O God! We salute you for being bearer of pains to the wrong-doers.

            Others may hate us because of their unknowledge and we may hate others because of our unknowledge. We place this hatred in your just laws for the purpose of its destruction.


Explanation- Direction on our left has been associated with God’s attribute of blissfulness. Here, God has been called ‘Som’ which means kind, blissful, peaceful & cool. Moon is also called ‘som’ because of the coolness, it generates. ‘Heart’, centre of love, is also on the left side of our body. On the right side God is called ‘Indra’ or power and on the left side, He has been called as peaceful. Giver of both power and peace is God. Happiness can only be there where there is balance between power & peace. Peace does not mean absence of power. When our body is weak, then flies, mosquitoes, bacteria etc. become more dangerous than animals like lion. Enemies on attacking a powerful body die in the same way as a burning wood gets extinguished on falling on a rock.

            Powers of a society which destroys its enemies like electricity are real saviours.

ध्रुवा दिग्---जम्भे दध्मः॥                       -Atharv Ved 3/27/5        

Meaning- O omnipresent God! You are master of the underneath direction. You save us from all evils, sins & pains through various vegetation. Poisonous animals may prove to be beneficial to the society.

            O God! We salute you for all these attributes. O master of this universe! We salute you. O savior God! We salute you. O God! We salute you for being bearer of pains to the wrong-doers.

            Others may hate us because of their unknowledge and we may hate others because of our unknowledge. We place this hatred in your just laws for the purpose of its destruction.


Explanation- Underneath direction has been associated with God’s attribute of omnipresence. Our ground on which we stand should be strong and should not unsteady to be able to support us. Here, God has been called ‘Vishnu’ which means omnipresent & saviour. God save us from slipping. He is the base of this universe. God by His omnipresence controls this universe.

            All the produce of the earth whether that be vegetation or underground minerals help us. Mineral resources are helpful only if vegetation is there. Vegetation & Mineral resources are supplementary to each other. Since, it is difficult to take the minerals, necessary for our health, orally God has put them in different vegetation e.g. iron, which is very much necessary for our health has been included in certain vegetation in appropriate quantity. 

ऊर्ध्वा दिग्---जम्भे दध्मः॥                               -Atharv Ved 3/27/6

     Meaning- O God! You are creator of all living & non-living beings of this universe and illuminator of knowledge through vedas. You are master of the direction falling above our heads. You save us all our lives through showering rain, knowledge etc. , which destroy our unknowledge and help us in our worldly affairs. The people, who are internally bad and harm the society in their different forms may become beneficial to the society.

            O God! We salute you for all these attributes. O master of this universe! We salute you. O savior God! We salute you. O God! We salute you for being bearer of pains to the wrong-doers.

            Others may hate us because of their unknowledge and we may hate others because of our unknowledge. We place this hatred in your just laws for the purpose of its destruction.


Explanation- Upward direction has been associated with God’s attribute of being creator & illuminator. Here, God has been called ‘Brihaspati’ which means the greatest. He is master of all.      

            Our helper in this direction is rainfall. Without proper rainfall, we cannot expect produce of different vegetation to help us.

Fourth Segment

            We fail to love anybody until & unless we come to know of his complete relation with ourselves. When we feel that other person is showering kindness on us, we start loving him. In the first three segments of sandhaya, we feel kindness of God in our bodies, in the world and in the society. We start loving God because of His kindness on us. All this bring us to a state where we become capable of loving Him without the necessity of thinking of His kindness. Let’s explain it through a worldly example. Suppose, you daily purchase some sweets from a particular sweet shop. In the beginning, you are concerned with the sweets and the shopkeeper is concerned with the money, you pay for the sweets. After a few days, you as well as the shopkeeper start recognizing each other. If after a month, you fail to visit that shop for certain reason, the shopkeeper starts thinking if you were all right. Such a thinking of the shopkeeper is not for the reason of not earning money from you for that day but it is because of development of personal relations with you beyond any sort of selfishness. We behave in our daily life in accordance with this universal truth. In the mantras of this segment, upasak i.e.mover on the path of God realization, directly relates with God.

ओम् उद्वयं तमसस्परि---सूर्यमगन्म ज्योतिरुत्तमम्॥                   -Yajurved 35/14

Meaning-O God! You are away from darkness of unknowledge. You are full of light and bliss. You remain existent during dissolution of this universe too. We adore you with great respect.

O God! You are giver of light and happiness to the souls, who give light and happiness to the other souls. You are creator, illuminator & maintainer of this whole universe. You are supreme and illumined by your own light. We bow before you. You are our savior.


Explanation-The most important message of this mantra is gradualness. As sun-light grows gradually, in the same way faith in God also grows gradually. For example, in the beginning, we see only a glimpse of a thing. Gradually, shape of that thing becomes clearer and on more concentration, we are able to see the real form of the thing. This example fully applies on realisation of God. For attaining every knowledge e.g. learning to walk, speak etc. , for learning every act, every art, every capability, different languages, we require a long practice. As such, it is not possible that love for God develops in a man in an instant. We cannot know Him without long practice. Accordingly, an upasak of God can test that after practice, whether his faith over God has increased or not, whether during difficult times, his ardency to remember God has increased or not, whether during good times, his thankfulness to God has increased or not?

            As to an eye, sun-light is both a mean to see & a mean for its health, in the same way, faith in God is food as well as a medicine for soul. Without faith in God, a soul is meaningless.

           In the absence of realisation of God, this world is full of darkness. Everywhere in the world, we see grief, pain, hatred, opposition & hopelessness. As soon as, one realises God, all darkness of the world vanishes.

 उदु त्यं ---विश्वाय सूर्यम्॥                          -Yajurved 33/31

Meaning-O God! You are creator of this world and knowledge enshrined in vedas. You are master of great souls. You are creator, illuminator & maintainer of this whole universe. Various mantras of vedas and laws of this world throw light on your nature or swaroop. In order to know or realize you in totality, we take resort to communion.


Explanation-In this mantra, three things have been explained:

1        To understand a distant thing, pointers are necessary in the sense that they infuse a spirit of enthusiasm in the traveller owing to which the destination looks nearer.

          Everything of this world is actually a ‘pointer’ for knowing Him. Let’s take our finger. How does it point towards God? The first thing, which becomes evident on seeing a finger is-it has been created by someone. Not you, who is possessor of the finger, not your mother, in whose womb it developed, not any doctor, who studies its anatomy, its functions, its relations with other organs of the body etc. for a number of years is a complete knower of it. Its complete knowledge is possessed by its creator only. But this creator cannot be seen. Eye can see only that thing, which is grosser than it. He has created tiny insects as well as animals as big as elephants. Since such a creator cannot be seen with eyes of flesh, we feel the need of ‘pointers’. Like a finger, other things of the world like the Sun, the Earth, other celestial bodies, vegetation etc. too, point towards God. For this reason only, it is said that for knowing God, this world should be known first.

2          Who is that being and where does He, who is required to be known reside?

            Actually, a person, who is called learned because of knowing some of the rules of the universe is only partly-learned. Only God knows all His rules. He is creator as well as master of these rules. He is complete or perfect. He is the one, whom we are required to know. The distance between us and God is of knowledge. He is the nearest to us but because of unknowledge, we fail to recognize Him. There is nothing in the world, which can be contemplated without bringing the qualities of God in our mind.

3          Knowledge of God is necessary for knowing this world. Above, it has been said that for knowing God, this world in totality should be known. Apparently, both these statements seem to be interdependent. But, this is not so. Let’s understand it through an example. Suppose, on seeing a big building, you get a feeling that owner of that building is a rich man. But for understanding the different corners of that building, its architecture and purpose of making that building, you must know the nature of the owner of the building. If you do not know the nature of the owner, then, many things of the building cannot be understood by you. When we go to a foreign land and because of being unfamiliar with the nature & necessities of its inhabitants, we are bound to consider many of the things, made by the inhabitants of that land to be unnecessary & meaningless but when we are told about utility of making of those things, we understand the meaningfulness of different things. Likewise, on seeing different things of the world, we understand that their creator, too, exists. When we understand the real nature of that creator with the help of various things of the world, then we understand the purpose of creation.

 चित्रं देवानामुदगादनीकं---जगतस्तस्थुषश्च स्वः॥                          -Yajurved 7/42

Meaning- O God! You are adorable, desirable, having enormous power, full of light and motivator of great souls. You are wholly unattached and inspirer of your worshippers, who are well-wishers of mankind, have very high level of knowledge and meet your selection criteria.

            You create all celestial bodies and control them by being present therein. You are originating force of this universe. You are controller of all living and non-living things of this universe. I accept this truth.


Explanation-God is the chief of all gods i.e. He is the most illumined thing. The Sun is said to be the most illumined of the all non-living objects of the world. To understand its wonderfulness, we must know certain facts about it. In the sun-light, we are able to know real swaroop (nature) of a thing. This Sun is crores of miles away from this Earth and from such a distant, its light comes for our aid. This Sun is thirteen lakh times bigger than the Earth, whose millionth part would be bigger than our houses. This is a little about kindness of the Sun, an inert object. There is an entity more wondrous than this physical sun. God is that entity and is said to be a spiritual sun. Before brightness of God, brightness of physical sun is nothing. It is said that all the brightness of all the illuminating objects is actually the brightness of God. Heart of the upasak (worshipper) is illumined by the brightness of God. This physical sun is crores of miles away from us but God is present in our souls. Physical sun gives its brightness during day time only but God illumines our hearts all the time.

            Generally, people say that God and His attributes are imaginary. But God’s attribute of ‘wonderfulness’ can never be imagined. A thing, which has been imagined loses its wonderfulness by coming within the boundary of ‘power of imagination’. Imagination and wonderfulness do not exist at the same time. A wonderful thing is one, whose existence is within your knowledge but actual swaroop of that thing is beyond your knowledge. There is no one, who is not astonished by the immenseness of this universe. When we can get astonished by the creations of man like ‘Taj Mahal’, then why can we not get astonished by the creator of lakhs of Suns? The first thing, which this mantra tells us- is man bows before the brightness of God, which is much more than the illumination of the objects of the universe taken together.

            The second message of this mantra is-God is inspirational force of all the good men, involved in welfare of beings. The third message is-like with the rise of the sun, whole physical universe fills with its brightness, in the same way, on realisation of God, all doubts get dissolved and one is filled with the thoughts of welfare of others. He is base of all living and non-living things. As all movements of our bodies are caused by our souls, similarly, all movements of the universe are caused by God. The last word of the mantra connotes acceptance of the beauties of the thoughts mentioned in this mantra.

तच्चक्षुर्देवहितं पुरस्ताच्छुक्रमुच्चरत्---शरदः शतात्॥                     -Yajurved 36/24

Meaning- O God! You are seer as well as giver of eyes (seeing capability). You are well-wisher of great souls. You are existent before manifestation of this world, during presence of this world and after dissolution of this world. You are pure by nature, omniscient and omnipresent. With your grace, we may see you and this world for hundred years, we may live for hundred years, we may hear good literature & nice words for hundred years, we may give sermons regarding your attributes for hundred years, we may be rich, healthy & independent for hundred years and with your grace, we may see, live, hear, teach & be independent even after hundred years.


Explanation-In this mantra, the relation between man’s physical and spiritual world has been explained. Different men have explained life as if it is a jail, home of grieves, purposeless, dream etc. in accordance with their personal thoughts. If our intellect realises that whatever is seen or heard is nothing but a misconception, then every action of ours will become meaningless. If one feels that the patient, whose service is his duty or the enemy, from whom he intends to free his nation is unreal or non-existent, then one will not carry out his duty with sincerity. In this mantra, this misconception has been resolved.

           This mantra has two parts. First part explains as to what has been given by God to man and the second part explains as to what should be done by man. Understanding these two things can make our lives meaningful.

           In the first part, calling God as eyes (God has been called as ‘eyes’ for the reason that He can visualize problems coming before His universe after lakhs of years, similar to man, who can see with his eye a few meters ahead of him), it has been explained that as potential power to become a tree is present in a seed, in the same way, God places potential powers in each man. Minimum age of man has been supposed to be hundred years. As such, in the beginning of the second part of the mantra, it has been said that man should endeavor to see i.e. to know for hundred years. It is true that whosoever takes birth has to die but dying cannot be said to be the purpose of life. The purpose of taking birth in this universe is ‘life’ and not ‘death’. You always have a purpose of going to the market. But, ‘retuning’ cannot be said to be the purpose of ‘going’. God has sown the seed of ‘love for life’ in each being. Nobody wants to die. To develop this love for life, we must understand its importance, for which knowledge is required. As such, it has been prayed that with eyes of ‘Man’ i.e. by controlling all our senses, we should concentrate on obtaining knowledge of different subjects. Secondly, it has been prayed to be able to live for hundred years. Now, a doubt arises as to why ‘life’ has been prayed for at number two after making a prayer for ‘knowledge’ at number one. Simply breathing cannot be said to be leading life. Life without knowledge is meaningless. Eating & sleeping is done by an ass also. Man’s life cannot be just eating & sleeping. In other words, life is nothing but ‘dutifulness’. Thirdly, it has been prayed to be able to hear for hundred years. In the first prayer, all the senses have been talked of. Here, by ‘hearing’ ‘studying & understanding vedas are meant. Fourthly, it has been prayed to be able to teach others for hundred years. Whatever has been known & understood through the study of vedas in this life should be spread among others. Sin of a money-miser is much less than the sin committed by a person, who does not spread his knowledge. What to talk of foolishness of a person, who hides his lamp simply for the reason that others may not get the benefit of its light. Development of different sects in the world is the result of forgetting the spirit of this prayer. After the Sun sets, darkness rules & light-insects act as the Sun.

Some may say that they do not possess the capability to study & understand vedas. Man can develop his potential powers in this direction. Fifthly, it has been prayed that we may not be controlled by others during the life-time. Everyone in this world is dependent on others in one way or the other. As such, in this mantra, it has not been prayed that we may not be dependent on others. Actually, interdependence lie at the root of universal brother-hood. Lastly, it has been prayed that we may live for more than hundred years. Above, we have said that hundred years is the average life of man. But, it is quite possible to lead a longer life by following the guidelines of vedas. Here, life does not connote number of breaths but instead, it is measured by the significance of the actions done during this time period. In other words, life is what we have done for ourselves and for the world during this span of time called ‘life’. Value of a coin does not depend on the value of the elements, of which it is made. Instead, it depends upon the quantity of articles, which can be bought against that coin.

GAYATRI MANTRA                        -Yajurved 36/3-repeatation

Meaning-O savior God! You create the bodies of all beings, relieve the pains of your worshippers, bring happiness & pleasure to your worshippers. You, being master of all living and non-living things existing in this universe, are worth acceptance. You are destroyer of all reasons of pains. You are light-house for all souls. We meditate over all these attributes of yours. Please inspire our intellects towards good qualities, actions & nature i.e. bestow goodness in our intellects.


Explanation-This mantra is repeated here at the end of sandhaya for reason of greatness of its thoughts. Its meaning has been explained at earlier instance / occasion.


हे ईश्वर दयानिधे---सद्य सिद्धिर्भवेन्नः॥

Meaning-O kind God! With your grace, we are able to worship you. The purpose of doing this act is to be able to behave truthfully and with justice for the welfare of others, to possess various things of this world by rightful means, to enjoy various things of this world and to enjoy bliss by being free from all sorts of pains, bad habits, bad karmas and bad men. Please fulfill our purpose of doing this rite at the earliest.


ओं नमः शम्भवाय---शिवतराय च॥                          -Yajurved 16/41

Meaning-O God! We salute you for being blissful, giver of all worldly pleasures and freeing us from the bondage of births & deaths. We salute you for always acting for welfare of others. We salute you for being giver of happiness & pleasure to your devotees, relieving pains of your worshippers and doing all your acts towards welfares of other beings.


Explanation-In the end of this rite, upasak’s heart gets filled with the greatness and kindness of God and he bows down before Him in love & salutes Him. Here, in this mantra, two things have been talked of. One is peace and the second is bliss. Without peace, there cannot be bliss and where there is peace, bliss is bound to be there. Peace is nothing but harmonious existence of different things. Imbalance of mental tendencies is termed as turmoil (opposite of peace). Health, for instance, is nothing but harmony among functioning of different organs of the body. God is not only peaceful & blissful but instills these attributes in His upasaks also.


                                                                                                                   -Most of the thoughts are of Pt Gangaprasad

                                                                                                                     Upadhaya & Swami Rameshwaranand

Out of more than 20000 mantras of vedas, Maharishi Dayanand has selected 8 mantras, called worship-mantras to be cited at every auspicious occasion. He has also, given meanings of these vedic mantras in Hindi. These mantras reflect smallness of man before capability of God. In these mantras, praise, prayer and communion with God have been talked of. Since, worship includes only these three things i.e. praise, prayer and communion, these mantras have been named as ‘worship mantras’. Before, dwelling on these mantras, we must know as to what is praise of God, prayer to God and communion with God.

PRAISE-It refers to talking of correct attributes and actions of God or any other thing. Accordingly, mentioning of incorrect attributes and actions of God or any other thing is nothing but condemnation.

PRAYER-It refers to asking for help from God or another capable-being towards fulfillment of one’s objective after doing own exertion according to one’s capability.

COMMUNION-It refers to getting engrossed in God so that His attributes can smoothly or freely transfer in the soul.

                Here, we will use these terms with respect to God only.

                It is natural for man to praise his benefactor and he feels a sort happiness in doing so. A person, who does not accept the good deeds of his benefactor does not command respect in the society. Truly speaking, the biggest benefactor of man is God. He has, not only, provided us eyes but also, has created different scenes to see with the eyes. For helping us in the process of seeing, he has given a great light-house named as the Sun. As such, it is our moral duty to recite the various attributes of God.

                In the world also, we see that nobody likes to help an idle person. Suppose, there is a person, standing leisurely and he asks you to lift his suitcase. What will be your reaction? You will not lift his suitcase with the thought that he himself is doing nothing and asking me to lift his suitcase. There is another person, who is trying to lift his luggage time & again but he has not been able to lift the same. On receipt of a slight gesture from that man, you immediately become ready for helping him. Same is true in case of prayers made to God. He is very kind & is always ready for helping His men. We, too, need to become eligible for receiving God’s help. This eligibility is earned by putting our own exertion (physical or mental) according to our respective capacities & capabilities.

                To attract the attributes of the God, we need to sit in upasana to bring / restore calmness or naturalness of the soul (For example, it is in the nature of the soul to like the truth). Once, a soul is able to attain its natural state, attributes of God including bliss start flowing in the soul. Upasana or communion raises the power of a soul to such an extent that it attains the power to throw the fear of death even. Raising the power of the soul is a very gradual process and a continuous & sincere practice is needed for that. To be able to engross the soul fully in the attributes of God, stuti (praise) & prarthana are used as means.

                Maharishi Dayanand has explained the fruits of stuti, prarthana & upasana as “Stuti (praise) develops love for God and enables man to improve his nature in accordance with the attributes of God. Prarthana (prayer) destroys man’s egoism, generates a feeling of enthusiasm and gets his all-time companion. Upasana removes all evils of the soul and purifies all his characteristics in accordance with that of God. As a cold-stricken man gets relief from cold by going near fire, in the same way, effect of upasana should be understood.”

                If we are not trying for transformation of our qualities in accordance with those praised for, then that stuti is useless. Stuti becomes meaningful only if it improves the nature of the doer. Till the time, our soul is filled with ‘ego’, we cannot realise God. This ego, which is a great hurdle in realisation of God, gets destroyed by prarthana.

                Maharishi Dayanand has also said that everyone should do stuti, prarthna & upasana. He has further said that one, who does not do stuti, prarthna & upasana of God, is the most foolish and ungrateful person. The evil of ungratefulness is very very big and one should try to get rid of this evil at the earliest.   

                There are following eight types of egoistic feelings and these eight mantras should be cited to destroy these.

  1. Ego of making
  2. Ego of capability
  3. Ego of charity
  4. Ego of being master or ruler
  5. Ego of being a giver of ‘support’
  6. Ego of ‘controlling’
  7. Ego of ‘brotherhood’
  8. Ego of ‘showing the path’

                Out of all the achievements of man, only that achievement is meaningful, which remains with man after death. Physical property never accompanies man after death. The only thing, which accompanies man after death is his earnings in the form of ‘good deeds’ and sins. These earnings in the form of ‘good deeds’ and sins become the basis of our next lives. For being able to escape from all evils and to do karmas (actions) towards righteousness despite odds require meeting eligibility criterion of God. This eligibility criterion of God can be met by doing ‘stuti’, ‘prarthna’ and ‘upasana’ of God. Repetitive meditation of meanings of these mantras bring firmness in ‘stuti’, ‘prarthna’ and ‘upasana’ of God. As such, maharishi Dayanand has advised to cite these mantras alongwith their meanings before every righteous ceremony. Accordingly, these mantras are cited in the beginning of doing ‘havan’ (havan should be done by everyone twice a day). These mantras are a key of obtaining God’s grace.

ओ३म् विश्वानि----तन्न आसुव॥   ॥१॥              -Yajurved 30/3

Meaning -O God! You are creator of this world, master of all affluence of the world, pure & giver of all pleasures. With your kind grace, all our evils & griefs may vanish and we may get all the good qualities & good things.

Explanation-Main part of this mantra contains prayer for removal of all malignant, harmful & injurious tendencies and receipt of benevolent & good tendencies. The other part of this mantra contains stuti (prayer) of God. In the world also, it is observed that utensils are first cleaned and then good things are poured in them and used. Likewise, living is pleasureful only in a clean room. This sequence of first removal of badness & then receipt of goodness has been emphasized in this mantra.

                Next point is we pray to the one, who has got the capacity to fulfill our prayer. Prayers of a person for money to a pauper, of a patient for treatment of his disease to a non-doctor etc. are laughable and reflect the foolishness of the doers of the prayers. This state has been avoided in this mantra by praying to the creator of this world and master of all affluence. God, who has created us all and is not poor, rather is master of all affluence. He not only creates our bodies but also controls our souls. His capacities and capabilities cannot even be imagined by man. The belief over acceptability of the prayer motivates the doer of the prayer to do exertion on his part.

                In this mantra, there is a prayer for removal of all evils. Presence of even a single evil is a hurdle in receiving the goodness. Only, that person attracts evils, whose ‘Man (not mind but heart)’ is wayward. It is true that ‘Man’ is very restless but when it is said that ‘Man’ should be made to rest, then we actually mean that restless power of ‘Man’ should be channelized. A person, whose mental powers are properly channelized in the right direction cannot attract evils.   

                As already said, the prayer becomes meaningful or effective only after the doer of prayer does the needed exertion on his part. Now, what efforts can be made by the doer of the prayer for removal of bad tendencies?  In short, we can say that the doer of prayer should do the following acts for making his prayer effective:

  1. Self-study:          Self-study purifies soul and enables it to dispel evils. As such, doer of prayer must develop the habit of self-study.
  2. Company of truthful people:      Company of truthful people removes inertness of intellect, makes the speech truthful and brings pride & peace. As such, doer of prayer must keep the company of truthful people.
  3. Surrender to God:           A person, who surrenders himself to his family is not affected by the ill words of his boss and other problems.  Similarly, all the griefs, irrespective of their quantum fail to affect the person, who surrenders to God.        

                Here, the prayer is for receipt of good qualities and good things or objects. Receipt of physical objects has its own significance in development of soul. Without physical objects even ordinary or simple life cannot be lead. Only a healthy person can go for God-realization and for healthy living, physical objects are necessary.

                This prayer has been made to God, who is pure by nature. In the world, also, we observe that only that person is called pure, who is clear at heart and behaves for the welfare of others. God is called pure since all His acts are for welfare of souls without any kind of discrimination. He is the giver of all the worldly things for use of souls. Since, He is the purest of all the pure things of the world, all our prayers should be made to God . He is our ultimate helper. 

                Here, in this mantra God has been prayed to provide the best qualities and best things. Since, man’s knowledge is limited and only God knows as to which qualities or objects are best suited for the welfare of a soul, God has been prayed to provide qualities or objects in accordance with His own knowledge.

ओ३म् हिरण्यगर्भः----हविषा विधेम॥    ॥२॥                   -Yajurved 13/4


Meaning -We should worship God, who is illumined by His own light, who is creator and controller of all illumined objects like the Sun, who is the only master of this universe, who was present before manifestation of this world, who is controlling our Earth and the Sun, wholeheartedly.  

Explanation-In this mantra, after signifying the greatness of God from the points of views of immenseness, seniority, creation-capability, control and power, man has been advised to worship Him wholeheartedly through yog.

 Greatness of God from the point of view of immenseness--- It is because of God’s capability or rules that fire has heat, the Sun gives sun-light, clouds pour water, air has coolness and death prevails. He is the creator of illuminating bodies like the Sun. There are lakhs of celestial bodies bigger than the Sun (the Sun is thirteenth lakh times bigger than this Earth) in this whole universe. God not only creates all these celestial bodies but also provides them the base of their existence.

Greatness of God from the point of view of seniority---There are only three things, which are eternal. Those are God, souls and nature (prakriti). Out of these, prakrati is non-living. Souls are living but their capacities and capabilities are limited. As such, he (soul) is unable to create bodies of beings. Since, God is a living being having unlimited capacities and capabilities, He is said to be having most senior state amongst the three eternal entities. Only God, being omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent, has the capability to create bodies of beings and inert objects of this universe. Being senior among three eternal entities, He has the power to remove our evils and bring us goodness.

Greatness of God from the point of view of creation-capability ---The truth that He is the only master of this whole universe is accepted by all the learned fellows. He, not only, creates this universe like earlier times but remains present in it. To think of God’s creation-capability, one may see different sorts of trees, plants, flowers & fruits, different organs like eyes to see, teeth to bite, tongue to taste etc. of their bodies, the system by which the food, we eat is converted into blood, flesh etc. All this gives a glimpse of God’s creation-capability over which we should have full faith. The persons, who bow down before the capabilities of scientists must understand that all the scientists cannot jointly make even a single hair of our body. The creator of the universe is really great, His intelligence is marvellous and His rules are strict or unbending. His capability in this regard cannot be doubted.

Greatness of God from the point of view of control---God is the master of this universe. He is the true friend of souls. He is the treasure of bliss. All His acts are for the welfare of souls. He controls non-living things as well as living things of the universe. We, because of presence of evils in us fail to receive His bliss.

Greatness of God from the point of view of power---He is omnipotent. By omnipotence, it is not meant that God can do everything. For example, by no means, we can understand that God can do injustice also. For execution of justice and for compliance of rules, power is required. Justice loses its meaningfulness, if the same cannot be enforced. His rules are such that no person can escape punishments given to him by virtue of his acts. Everyone dies even if he does not desire to die. Creation of movement in the original state of prakriti so as to bring it in the present state, speaks of God’s power.

Accordingly, devotees, by getting influenced by the greatness of God, must believe that they can be made to receive goodness after removal of their evils by God only .

                It is only after knowing God that man can cross the ocean of griefs. There is no other way of achieving the painless state i.e. where there is no grief. The only way to know God and cross the ocean of griefs is yog. Yog is a practice aiming at being one with God. As such, man has been advised to worship God through yog. The means of successful completion of yog are continuous practice and communion. Dhyan is a mean of communion or upasana and success of dhyan lies on the feelings of love and ‘surrender’. What can be surrendered to God when giver of all the things of the world is God Himself? ‘Man (not mind but heart)’ is the reason of man’s slavery and freedom. As such, the best way is to surrender ‘Man’ itself instead of the physical things, to God. ‘Man’s’ tendency is to love. If man is able to channelize this tendency of his ‘Man’ towards love for God, then the receipt of goodness becomes a lot easier.

य आत्मदा----हविषा विधेम॥      ॥३॥                    -Yajurved 25/13

Meaning –God is giver of spiritual knowledge. He bestows physical, social & spiritual strength and is worshipped by all learned fellows. His truthful rule and justice i.e. education is adored by all. His shelter gives bliss and on the other hand non-acceptance of His entity is the reason of all miseries including that caused by death. We may worship God, who is blissful and is giver of all types of knowledge through our souls & intellects by following His instructions.

Explanation-This mantra, mainly, mentions the following things:

  1. God is a great bestower.
  2. God is the only worshipable entity.
  3. God’s justice is accepted by all.
  4.  God’s shelter provides bliss.
  5. Non-acceptance of God’s entity is the reason of all miseries.

                 Only wordy knowledge without knowing the relation between the words and their meanings is a mere waste. As such, it is very essential that upasak (devotee or doer of cummunion) at the time of reciting any mantra meditates over its meaning. By following this method, the upasak is able to control his ‘Man’ and get engrossed in enjoying the bliss. Generally, from the words ‘य आत्मदा', scholars of the Sanskrit language draw the meaning ‘giver of souls’ but maharishi Dayanand drew the meaning as ‘giver of spiritual knowledge’, which synchronizes well with the vedic principles. It is clearly mentioned in the vedas that there are three entities namely, prakriti (material cause of this universe), souls and God, which are beginningless and endless and have not been created by anyone. If we consider these entities to be with a beginning, then we cannot logically answer the questions relating to creator of these entities. As the things with a beginning must have an end, similarly, the things, which are beginningless must be endless too. Everyone agrees that the body is given to a soul by God and one is able to get spiritual knowledge only after receiving human body. This fact emphasizes the correctness of the meaning of the words ‘य आत्मदा' drawn by maharishi Dayanand. Power has three aspects-physical, spiritual & social. All these three aspects of power are essential for development of soul. One, who is physically very powerful but lacks spiritual power cannot be strong-willed. For attaining spiritual power, physical power is essential. As such, spiritualism cannot ignore physical-power. Attainment of both physical power as well as spiritual power is impossible without social power. In other words, social power is very much required for attaining physical power and spiritual power. A school of thought, which is considered to be the path of development of soul by one & only one, cannot be followed, if there is no other member of the society with the same school of thought. Amidst bad people, good people cannot live peacefully. As such, social power is at par with physical power and spiritual power, in development of man.

                All the great men of this big world did worship God in one form or the other. Today, man has completely been mesmerized by the scientific achievements and has forgotten the very existence of the entity of God.

                God rules all the living and non-living things of the world through certain rules. These rules of His are totally unbiased. These just rules lie at the base of His justice. This is His greatest truthful education. The fact is no one is able to change the rules of God. Certain incidents like greying of hair, losing of sensual strengths, passing of youthfulness, dying etc. take place irrespective of our unwillingness. These incidents take place in accordance with certain rules. Whatever, we do in the present lives remain with our souls and become the basis as to what sort of bodies, parents, worldly means etc. will be obtained by us in our next lives in accordance with the just system of God. Here, no recommendation / endorsement works. Also, our friends & relatives cannot render any sort of help, in this matter. As such, we need to bow down before the power, which controls this whole universe by these rules.

                The joy of all worldly things is diminishable but the joy of God’s bliss remains constant in all times and all circumstances. As such, it is rightly said that one, who wants bliss should accept the shelter of God. Many great souls of history could embrace death smilingly only because of realisation of the fact that shelter of God is the only mean of enjoying bliss. Non-acceptance of God or non-following of His instructions is the reason of our miseries. Here, in this mantra, it has been emphasized that acceptance of God is not in any way different from following His instructions. God’s instructions can be divided into two parts-(i) the acts, which humans should do (ii) the acts, which humans should not do. His instructions aim at fulfilling the purpose of creation. An act may yield timely benefit to another member of the society but if it is not directed towards fulfilling the purpose of creation, then such an act cannot be said to be in accordance with His instructions.

                One, who accepts the shelter of God calls for problems willingly. He understands that all the problems coming in his life are as a result of his past actions and these problems aim at reducing the burden of his past actions. There is no way by which he can escape from the fruits of his past actions. He can only call for the strength from the almighty to bear these fruits with peace.

                Purpose of our lives is to obtain the bliss of God, who is blissful by nature. Towards attaining this purpose, soul needs to worship Him with the help of pure ‘Man’. Purity of ‘Man’ is very necessary for worshipping God and this purity is automatically received by bringing the feeling of ‘surrender’ to God. Soul and not body should worship Him. Here, ‘worshipping Him’ means following His commands or instructions. In the world too, we see that a father loves only that child, who follows his commands. In the same way, God bestows His grace over that human being, who acts according to the path shown by Him.

                This mantra destroys the ego of donation. By looking at the benevolences of God in the form of human body, means to obtain the ultimate knowledge and worldly things, one realises the smallness of his ego of donation.

यः प्राणतो---हविषा विधेम॥      ॥४॥                        -Yajurved 23/3

Meaning-God, who is the ruler and controller of all living and non-living things of this universe is one and the only king. He creates the bodies of human beings and other living beings like cows. We must worship that blissful God with all our good possessions.

Explanation-Yajurved 31/18 says, “God is the greatest of the greats. He is the creator of illumined bodies like the sun. He is illumined by His own light. He is devoid of darkness of nescience or unknowledge (non-knowledge). Only by knowing such a great entity, one can conquer the fear of death. In other words, there is no other way except ‘bhakti’ (somewhat devotion) of God to escape from worldly ties / circle of birth & death.” This mantra aims at signifying the crux of the above mentioned mantra.

                Now, a question arises that if He is one and only one, then how does He creates, maintains and destroys this world single-handedly. Clarification---Hands, feet etc. are needed for creation by one, having limited power & limited capability and by one, who is present at one place only. But God, who is omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent does not require any means for creation of world. He can hold without hands, can move without feet (actually, since God is omnipresent, His moving from one place to another is meaningless), can see without eyes & can hear without ears. He is able to do all His acts out of His naturalness. As such, He is the only master of this universe and is worshipable.

                   He is not only the master of this universe but creates bodies of all its beings out of His immense capabilities. To understand the meaning of creation of bodies, one should look at the marvellous and astonishing skills in making of one’s own body. In a human body, not only sense organs have been made but the different things to serve as objects of different sense organs too have been made (for instance, besides making tongue to taste, different tasteful things too, have been made).Different systems like respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive system etc. and means like intellect, memory etc. have been created for smooth functioning of the body. Will any body like to lead his life without any of these organs? Is such a marvelous creation of human bodies and bodies of other beings possible by any human being? In a conference of scientists, a scientist (most probably Albert Ainstien) declared, “You need not be proud of your inventions, as all the scientists of the world jointly cannot make a single hair of the head.” This declaration by a scientist signifies that wonderful bodies of beings are great gifts of God. Only He is capable of creating such beautiful, pleasurable bodies, embedded with various means. As such, He is the only worshipable entity. Not only bodies, but whatever is present in this world is because of Him. All the great powers of this world have been bestowed on souls for their welfares. All the affluence of the world is His benevolence. Out of the various things of the world, He decides as to which thing and in what quantity is to be provided to a being, in accordance with his actions. Whatever, help is given by us to others is negligible before His benevolences. As such, while helping other, we must develop the attitude that ‘giver is Him’. Ego is the greatest hurdle in being free from the cycle of birth & death. How to escape from this ego? The only way to escape from ego while doing an act is to surrender all our actions to God. To develop the feeling of ‘surrender to God’, one is required to develop detachment from all worldly things. Now, the question arises that what should ‘Man’, which is very restless by nature, do, if it, does not attaches itself with any worldly thing? Towards answering this question, this mantra directs us to concentrate ‘Man’ on ‘bhakti’ of God with all our good possessions.

                This mantra kills the feelings like we are masters or kings, our affluence is great, no one is richer & more powerful than us etc. That God is the only master of whole of this world.

येन द्यौरुग्रा---हविषा विधेम॥      ॥५॥                    -Yajurved 32/6

Meaning-We, in order to realise God, who is holding the celestial bodies like the sun, who is holding the earth, who is holding pleasure & painless bliss, who makes the celestial bodies according to specific rules and make them move in the space like birds in the sky, should worship Him with all our capabilities .

Explanation-In this mantra, greatness of God has been explained so as to make us realise our smallness. We feel very proud even after obtaining a little or creating a little and forget to do ‘bhakti’ of God. This mantra inspires us to do bhakti of God. God is the creator of this earth and all other celestial bodies of the unlimited space. More than one thousand million galaxies have been found by the scientists. There is a system by which these celestial bodies are interlinked and generate the effect of destruction of organisms, causing diseases and production of specific climatic conditions, necessary for generation of required juices in fruits, vegetables & medicinal plants. God not only creates and holds all these celestial bodies but also remains present in them. Even scientists of today are very much astonished over the immenseness of space. The Sun is thirteen lakh times bigger than our Earth. There are many celestial bodies bigger than the Sun. Sun-light moving at the speed of approximately two lakh kms. per second can reach the Earth only in little less than seven minutes. This explains the hugeness of space. Accordingly, Sir Jagdishchander Vasu has correctly said, “It is possible that man could count the drops of water in an ocean. It is also possible that man could count the particles of sand in a desert but it is impossible to count the celestial bodies present in the space.” The presence of different types of fruits, vegetation & their qualities is very wonderful. Creation of such vegetation-world is beyond the human-capability. Looking at this Earth, we find big mountains at some places, at some places, there are huge grounds, at some places, there are deserts, at some places, there are cultivable land & at some other places, the land is stony and thus uncultivable. All this speak that creator is not a human being. There are many wonderful systems present on this Earth. For example-the water, which is converted into steam by the Sun is undrinkable but the same becomes drinkable, when poured on this Earth through rainfall. There are many mineral resources inside this Earth. God, who creates all these bodies and holds them is really great.

                A thing produces pain, if it works against our desire, likewise, we feel joy if a thing works in accordance with our will. In other words, we can say that not to have control over our senses brings misery and vice versa. By having control over ‘Man’, our senses get automatically controlled. By having control over ‘Man’, we mean to channelize its energy. This channelization of powers of ‘Man’ is possible by having ‘knowledge’ only. When ‘Man’ and ‘intellect’ are filled with attributes of God, then this world and the body become only a mean to fulfill the purpose of soul. Then, one is blessed with God’s grace and receiving God’s grace means moving towards obtaining His bliss. Since, only God can give us His bliss, He has rightly been said to be holder or possessor of joy.

                Now, a question is raised that when one attains ‘moksh’ or goes beyond the circle of birth & death, then how does he enjoys bliss without body? Let’s try to understand it through a worldly example. When we are in deep sleep, all our senses do not have any relation or link with the outward world but on waking up we do realize that we slept joyfully. This joy is similar to bliss. Feeling of bliss with body but without the knowledge of the same happens during sleep and feeling of bliss without body but with the knowledge of the same happens during ‘smadhi’. The difference in the states of ‘smadhi’ and ‘moksh’ is- while in ‘smadhi’, one is with body, while in ‘moksh’, one is without body. Since, soul is able to feel joy or pain with body only, it implies that painless state can only be without body and this state is termed as ‘moksh’.

                Now, let’s talk of the vastness of this universe. This universe consists of numerous galaxies. Scientists believe that there are many celestial bodies, whose light has not reached the Earth till now. Has this vast universe been created on its own? No! Not at all. All this has been created in accordance with definite rules. Because of these rules only, we are able to experience heat, cold, greenery etc. on Earth. Life on the planet Earth has been possible only because of definite distance between the Earth & the Sun, systematic gravity rules etc. It is only because of definite movement of these planets that scientists are able to estimate correctly about eclipses.

                These celestial bodies move in space without collision, in the same way as birds fly in sky. As such, we can say that their movements are controlled by a full-proof system. Where there is a system, there ought to be a creator of that system. The entity, which is responsible for creation of such a huge universe and which controls it through definite systems has been called as God. And such a great God is undoubtedly worshipable.

                God has created this universe, not to serve any purpose of his own but for the welfare of souls. As such, there cannot be any greater benevolence than this.

                After establishing that God only is worshipable, this mantra tells the way He should be worshipped. This world and the bodies are perishable but God is eternal. This implies that for worshipping God, our means, too, should be eternal. This means that God can be realised by worshipping Him soulfully. No doubt, soul can take the help of non-eternal means like this body & different things of the world in the matter but without any sort of attachment to these means. This body & the things of the world are not ignorable at all. These means should be used for enhancing bodily & worldly capabilities and after obtaining bodily & worldly affluence, the same should be used in the service of beings towards fulfillment of the objective of the creation. To use your earned property over your family members, if the same is not towards fulfillment of the objective of the creation, cannot be said to be ‘punaya’.         

                    This mantra advises us not to be proud of our capabilities in any circumstance before the greatness of capabilities of God.

प्रजापते न---पतयो रयिणाम् ॥६॥                    -Rigved 10/121/10

Meaning-There is no one superior or greater than God, who is master and creator of all living and non-living things of the universe (When God is said to be creator of all living things, it does not mean that God has created souls) i.e. God is the greatest and most superior of all beings. God may fulfill all our desires, with which we take His shelter and with His grace, we may become master of great affluence.

Explanation-In this mantra, following things have been mentioned:

  • God is master of all living and non-living things of the universe.

He is creator of the systems, by which all the things of this universe are functioning. He is present in everything of the universe. He is holding all the celestial bodies. He controls blending of souls with the bodies. Since, He is without and within us, He has perfect knowledge of all our physical and mental actions. He is our true well-wisher and as such, we should try not to do sins and should follow the path shown by Him through vedas. For all worldly things, we must beg before Him only.

  • There is no one superior or greater than God.

God is not such a king or master, who becomes egoistic of His possessions or capabilities. He does not fall a prey to false ego by supporting a few people. A devotee understands His endless potential. No one, by being proud of his property, affluence, rights etc. can stand before Him in comparison. When, there is no one equal to Him, then it is meaningless to think of any one greater than Him. He is the greatest of all seeable and non-seeable things. It is meant that in front of God, who is master of all seeable and non-seeable things and all living and non-living things, the money, property, affluence, knowledge & capability of a man are negligible. As such, He is the only worshipable entity.

  • All, who accept His shelter will be blessed with fulfillment of their desires

This statement raises a natural question- Does He fulfill even unrighteous desires of His devotees? In reply to this question, we cite certain worldly examples.We see in our day to day life that a thief does not think of stealing anything in the presence of a person of high authority. In the same way, a child does not think of any mischief in front of his father. Here, a ‘bhakt’ (devotee) has understood that God is great. How can he think of any unrighteous desire in His shelter? All the desires of a person, who accepts His shelter are bound be righteous.

                Since, He is our true well-wisher and capable of meeting our demands, we should not beg from anyone other than God. Whenever, we require any help, Only He should be prayed for. But before God can help one in his worldly affairs, one’s mind should accept His shelter.

  • We may, with His grace, be master of affluence.

There is a wrong notion that Indian culture mainly talks of ‘sacrifices’, not having any room for possessions. Perhaps, such a notion developed because Indian literature declared emphatically that since, all worldly things are perishable, one should endeavor to possess non-worldly things. Here, non-possession of worldly things mean not having any sort of attachment with worldly things.

                Today, most of the people are of the thinking that one should be self-centered in enjoying the worldly pleasures. Such a thinking is the base of miseries in the society.

                The credit goes to maharishi Dayanand for bringing before us the thinking of earlier rishis, which is in accordance with vedas and is very much logical. According to this thinking, there is a perfect coordination between sacrificing-spirit and enjoyment of worldly pleasures. If, we have come in this world, then, we need not live dependently and be penniless rather we should be independent and enjoy all affluence of the world. God, besides giving beautiful body, has bestowed various means like intellect, ‘Man’ and senses to obtain and enjoy affluence of the world. Only the money, we earn by using these means without falsehood, deceitfulness & ill-will can rightly be called as affluence. God only is the master of such affluence. Anything earned un-righteously cannot & should not be termed as affluence. Money, which is a major source of obtaining the worldly pleasures, if earned un-righteously cannot bring happiness.Actually, the real affluence, which is earned by worshipping God, controls the happiness enjoyed by one from the worldly things. As such, towards fulfilling all the desires, one should act intelligently and righteously i.e. in accordance with the instructions of God or vedas. Being poor & withdrawing oneself from the worldly things is not the objective of life, rather, one should earn maximum affluence according to his capability & should use the same towards fulfillment of purpose of ‘creation’. In exchange of this, he will be rewarded by the happiness.

                Which desires of the devotee are to be fulfilled and which desires are not to be fulfilled depends upon the decision of God. To understand the concept, let’s take the help of an example. A lad going in the bazar along with his father asks his father to buy him sweets from there. But, the father declines to meet his desire since his son had recently recovered from typhoid fever and eating sweets is not good for his health. In the similar way, God knows about the welfares of His sons and meet the only demands of theirs, which are for their welfares.

                Now, let’s explain about His system of meeting the demands of His sons. Suppose, a person has earned 100 units of God’s grace which means God will help him in obtaining the happiness from worldly things equal to 100 units only. Preference of worldly things, out of which happiness will be drawn by the person will depend upon the person’s wishes brought out by him in his prayers.

                Our egoistic feeling that we are the feeders etc. gets killed through this mantra.

स नो---देवाSअमृतमानशानास्तृतीये धामान्नध्यैरन्त   ॥ ७॥           -Yajurved 32/10

Meaning-O Man! God takes care of we people like a big brother. He is the creator of this whole universe. His will lies at the base of completion of all our works. He knows all our previous births, various places & times. That God, whose bliss is enjoyed by learned fellows after attaining ‘moksh’, is our master, teacher, king & judge. We may worship such a God only.

 Explanation-This mantra attracts our minds to the following points:

  • God has brotherly affection for us and is our true friend.

God has blended souls with respective bodies for the welfare of souls only & not to serve any purpose of his own. Every soul is bound to go through the pain or pleasure as a result of his actions so as to be eligible to move to a higher (painless & pleasureless) state. These bodies, which are means of bearing pains & enjoying pleasures of our past actions, have been created by God so magnificiently and generously that there is not even a small shortcoming in them, hurdling our enjoyment. For instance, if there are different tastes in the world, then our bodies too, have been supplied with matching tongues to enjoy all these different tastes. We would not have been able to call God as our big brother, if our bodies were without or faulty tongues etc. By providing perfect bodies, God has shown His brotherly affection.

                  A true friend always accompanies us. Only God meets this criterion. He is our all-time companion, though we value His company in difficult times only. He is so neer us that we cannot leave him, even if we so wish.

  • God is the creator of this whole universe.

In the world also, we see that wherever there is action, there is doer and wherever there is a system, there is maker of the system or the controller. We observe that the movements are not only in the living things but also in the inert objects like the Sun, the Earth, the other celestial bodies etc. Their movements and their creation is beyond the capability of humans. There is so much uniformity in the rules of creation that a doctor is able to treat any organ of his patient irrespective of the place of the patient. All these speak of the greatness of the creative-ability of that Supreme Being.

  • 'His will' lies at the base of completion of all our works.

When it is said that ‘His will lies at the base of completion of all our works’ then, it means that He is the final authority, who gives appropriate & just fruits of our actions at correct times & places. Working for our welfare does not mean that He gives unjust fruits of our actions. As for as our demands are concerned, He fulfills only those demands, which are in accordance with our actions as well as for our welfare.

  • He knows all our previous births, various places & times.

This is exhaustiveness of God’s attribute of omniscience.

  • After attaining ‘moksh’ His bliss is enjoyed by learned fellows.

Bliss is enjoyed by living humans also but that enjoyment is not continuous and gets disrupted by natural bodily needs. In contrast to this, the bliss, which is enjoyed after attaining ‘moksh’ i.e. after being free from the cycle of birth & death, remains continuous for a very long period of time.After attaining ‘moksh’, souls do nothing but enjoy His bliss.

  • Such a God is our master, teacher, king & judge.

Being very great, God is our teacher, being analyzer of our wills (generation of the feelings of enthusiasm, joy, fear & shame on thinking of doing an act is God’s method of analyzing our wills), He is our master and being very just, He is our king & judge.

  • We should worship such a God only.

This mantra destroys the ego of ‘brotherhood’ or ‘being a true friend’.

अग्ने नय---उक्तिं विधेम   ॥८॥           -Yajurved 40/16

Meaning- God! You are full of light and giver of all pleasures. Please bestow the intellect by which we could follow the great men, whose lives are perfectly in accordance with vedas so as to be able to have control or mastery over the maximum of affluence of the world. Also, in the process, we may be saved from cunning ways & evils. For this reason, we may always praise you and enjoy your bliss.  

 Explanation-This mantra draws our attention on the following points:

  • God is full of light and illuminator of all the things of the world.

Generally from the word ‘agni’ of this mantra, physical fire is meant but mahrarishi Dayanand has drawn the meaning of ‘God’ from this word, which is in accordance with the vedic literature. The giver of light of knowledge is God only. The notion that knowledge got developed out of its own nature or by following the sounds of animals or men of little knowledge does not stand on the platform of logic.

  • God is possessor of perfect knowledge. As such, knowledge & practicality of that knowledge to have progress in the spiritual & physical fields can be obtained by His grace only.

We pray to God out of the realisation that He has perfect knowledge. Also, knowledge is the only mean of obtaining affluence of the world, necessary for our spiritual & physical development. Knowledge is not distributed by God in a haphazard way rather, one has to earn the capability to receive knowledge. This fact can be known by us from our worldly experiences. The method to earn the grace of God is to follow the path shown by the men, who have true knowledge of God and other things of the world.

  • Only His capability, kindness & justice save us from evil deeds.

In the world, there are cunning ways (not to have control over senses is the wrong way) & non-cunning ways (to have control over senses is the right way) to earn a thing (most importantly, money). While leading worldly lives, we are prone to commit sins and by this mantra we pray to God for saving us from doing evil deeds and following wrong ways.

                Crookedness is to be left at all costs. One can follow wrong ways without receiving any punishment for the same from the worldly people but he is wrong, if he feels that his crooked or cunning deeds are able to go unnoticed by God also. Nobody can perform any act (both physical as well as mental) without the knowledge of God. As such, it is good to leave bad deeds.

  • We should always worship Him.

In this mantra, only first stage of worship (worship comprises of three steps-praise, prayer and communion) has been mentioned. This does not mean that other two stages or steps of worship namely, prayer & communion have been ignored. Praise of God is the initial step of worship. Without this step, one cannot go further. Praise of God brings humility and kills ego.

  • This (worshipping Him) is the only way to enjoy His bliss.

A question arises as to what is the benefit of worshipping God? Maharishi Dayanand has clarified this issue by saying that one should worship God for enjoying His bliss.


                In the first worship-mantra, God was prayed for removal of all malignant, harmful & injurious tendencies and receipt of benevolent & good tendencies and in this (last) worship-mantra, method for fulfillment of the prayer has been mentioned.

                One, who adopts non-crooked path and follows the ways shown by followers of vedas remains always at peace and earns the enjoyment of bliss. Mind of such a person never gets perturbed by worldly circumstances. His fearlessness cannot be explained.

                                                                                                              -Majority of the thoughts are of shri Arjun Dev Snatak

     The term ‘worship’ is used in respect of God only. For gods, the term ‘adoration’ may be used. Worship of God comprises three things-stuti (praise), prarthna (prayer) & upasana (communion) whereas adoration of gods refer to our respectful behaviour towards their satisfaction & purity. Here, we must understand as to who or what are gods? By the term ‘gods’, we mean souls like parents, knowledgeable persons etc. or inert objects like water, air etc. who or which give and do not take anything in return like mother, father, sun, air, water etc. Here, we do not think appropriate to dwell on all of these. Out of 33 gods, Havan is the 33rd god which purifies all the other 32 gods. Here, it must be remembered that none of these 33 gods is worshipable. Worshipable is only one God, who is an intelligent entity and creator of these gods (Here, creation refers to bringing gods in their present condition). While adoration of living gods refer to dealing or behaving with them in accordance with their behaviour & status, in the society and by keeping their intakes (air, water & food) pure, the adoration of non-living gods refer to their purification. Here, while talking of necessity of doing havan, we take air & water as representatives of non-living gods.

     Without these non-living gods like air, water etc. , we cannot survive. Purity of water and air is very essential. By paying deep thinking, we will realize that maximum benefit is drawn by us from air, water and food. Do we not realize that- without air, not only man but all the creatures of the world can exist only for a while only, without water, only for a few days? Imagine that a king of many countries is lost in a desert and is crying out of thirst, then he will be ready to give whole of his kingdom for a glass of water. Similar is the importance of food. When one plans to go to an unseen place, climate of that place is enquired about. Climate consists of different factors relating to water & air. The reason behind this is that on climate of a place, our health & happiness depends a lot. Today, impure air & water is a great problem.

     How havan purifies non-living gods such as air & water? While doing ‘Havan’, all the good things namely, things of medicinal properties, things good for our bodily & mental health, things giving / generating fragrance are put in fire, which transforms the things put into it in very subtle atomic form, which can easily be absorbed by our body through breathing. Like, the things, necessary for our bodily health are not attached with the particular part of our body but are put into in our mouth, which passes the things to the digestive system of our body, which converts that particular thing into energy and supplies that energy to the needy part, in the same way, since fire is the mouth of all non-living gods, if we want to purify air & water, the things necessary for purification of air & water are not put into them but instead are put into fire which in turn purifies the air & water. In havan, we put in fire the materials, required for keeping the non-living gods pure. Fire has a quality, by which it transforms the things put into it, in their finer forms, raises their temperature & makes them light enabling air to disperse these things in vast area. Watery part of these things, because of their high temperature gets raised by air and becomes cloud which when pour on Earth through rain purifies all the vegetation. The very base of piercing power of fire is its ability to raise the temperature of the things coming in its contact. Because of this piercing power of fire, the air of our homes, which gets impure by our respiration etc. gets changed by the fresh air of the atmosphere. By no other mean we can change the air of our homes. By swallowing the eatables, put into fire in ‘Havan’, we can get the benefit equal to only a part of the total benefits received on putting those things in fire.

     As per science of materials, matter never gets destroyed, it gets transformed only. Accordingly, what is put in fire never gets destroyed rather gets minute and because of minuteness, the materials put into fire get extended a lot in qualities & space. On getting minute, they become more powerful & spread through air in the atmosphere giving life-force to all. In this way, these materials are able to remove pollution from the atmosphere. The rain, which falls from such un-polluted atmosphere affects the vegetation & the vegetation gets richer in quality as well as in quantity. There is a chain effect, which starts from havan. Havan, removing pollution from the atmosphere, causes better quality of rainfall to pour, richer rainfall is the cause of better vegetation and better vegetation helps all creatures to lead healthy lives. As such, havan is the only mean by which we can honour all our living gods and keep the non-living gods pure & healthy. It is a great Mantra towards welfare of all. Without focusing on this Mantra, we cannot achieve ‘welfare of all’.

     God created the non-living gods in their purest forms but man, out of his selfishness to meet his worldly needs has created different sorts of factories, means of transportation etc. and thereby has polluted these non-living gods. Only that act can be called adoration of these gods, which purifies them and this act is ‘Havan’ & ‘Havan’ only. It is a sin not to do ‘Havan’. We are duty bound to purify the air, water etc., which get polluted by our (by our pets also) daily use. The benefit of doing havan is not physical only but spiritual also. The thoughts, which get generated on citing of different mantras during ‘havan’ lift our spirits and we tend to behave righteously towards different living & non-living things of the universe.

      At different worship-places, worship of God only is done, totally ignoring adoration of gods. Now, every country of the world is worrying about the deteriorating conditions of purity of our environment i.e. water, air etc. and that of righteousness of man. It is high time to understand that the right way to adore gods is to do ‘Havan’.

                                                                                                                               -Most of the thoughts are of Arjun Dev Snatak