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MEANING AND EXPLANATION OF SOME VEDIC MANTRAS

    ओ३म् विश्वानि देव----तन्न आसुव।              -Yajurved 30/3

 

Meaning -O God! You are inspirer of all the happenings of the universe. May all our evils & griefs vanish and we get all the good qualities & good things.

Explanation-Everyone wants to remove his evils & griefs and to receive good qualities & good things. As such, follower of any sect can pray to God through this mantra without any sort of reservations.

            Here, in this mantra, there is a mention of three words, meanings of which need contemplation. First word is prayer. A desire can become prayer only if it contains gravity. There can be imagination or even desire for certain unknown & unpossessed things but it cannot become a prayer. The basic element of prayer is a burning desire to possess a thing and it (burning desire to possess a thing) can be had only on understanding the value or meaning of that thing. A person praying for a thing without knowing the meaning of that thing can be called nothing but a fool. Generally, people pray for realization of God, salvation & freedom from the bondage of births & deaths without knowing the meaning of these phrases or words. By making such prayers, they, only, add to their sins. Second word is ‘evil or bad’. Bad is a relative term. A thing can be good or bad from different perspectives. Crux of the meaning of this word is-everything harmful for self for attaining the ultimate goal can be called to be ‘bad’. Presence of even a single evil can make your journey of life impossible. If whole of the body of a person is very strong but a very small cut is there on one of his toes, then, whole of his work will get hampered. As such, in this mantra, God has been prayed for removal of all repeat all evils. Third word is ‘benevolent or good’. All the things (living and non-living), which aim at removal of obstacles on the path of realization of God can be called to be ‘benevolent or good’.

            Here, in this mantra, there is a mention of God’s impelling or inspirational or stimulating power. This can only be understood through a worldly example. When rays of the Sun fall on living and non-living organisms, they (rays) awaken the energies, already present in these organisms. There is no cause & effect relation between rays of the Sun & the organisms. Just like worldly sun, God, too, stimulates souls. It is wrong to believe that God makes souls act in the way He wants. Souls are totally independent to do whatever they want and God’s inspirational power in no way cause dependency of souls’ actions. If, God wants evils to exist in the world, then, praying for removal of evils becomes meaningless. Again, a worldly example is given for making the concept of God’s inspiration understood in the right spirit. Rays of the Sun inspires both the seeds of chillies and that of mangoes alike. Because of this contribution of rays of the Sun, one type of seeds produce tanginess and the other type of seeds produce sweetness. Rays of the Sun do not produce tanginess or sweetness. They only inspire the seeds to manifest their natural powers. Similarly, feeling of theism inspires human beings to manifest their natural powers. On manifestation of their natural powers, malignant, harmful & injurious tendencies and things get automatically removed, in the way, germs of a disease meet their ends on attacking a strong man. Theism raises spiritual powers of man (by manifestation of his natural powers) to such an extent that evils cannot stand before such a person. This is the only difference between a theist and an atheist.

            Nothing is received free. Everything has to be earned. Going by the same logic, removal of evils has to be earned by praying for manifestation of natural or inherent powers of the self. Prayers to God for receiving external things are meaningless.

            Greatness of God’s inspirational power can be understood through another worldly example. Donation of alms can bring fame to the donator but it does not increase the capability of beggars. But, if, instead of donation of alms, capability of the beggars can be increased, they will not require donations anymore. God’s inspirational power awakens the inherent powers of living and non-living things.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

अग्ने नय सुपथा---नम उक्तिं विधेम।            -Yajurved 5/36

Meaning -O God! You are the lighthouse & show the right path to everyone. You know everything. For meeting the worldly end, please show us the right path devoid of evils & crookedness.  

Explanation-Here, in this mantra, God has been called by the name-‘Agni’.  ‘Agni’ is also the name of the fire. Fire emits light and in the dark, lamp etc. show the path. The Sun is a body of fire and there is nothing else in this universe equivalent to the Sun, which can be called a lighthouse.

            In the beginning of this world, man would have felt the necessity of a guide, who could show him the path. This necessity was fulfilled to some extent by this universe or nature. All the things of the nature from a small piece of grass to huge bodies like the Sun, teach man something or the other and an intelligent person remains anxious to learn from all these natural objects. But universe in itself is not capable enough to be a good teacher of man. We see in the world that small fish are eaten by the big fish. The sacrificing spirit is almost negligible in animals. We do not find husband-wife relationship in most of the mammals and since man, too, is a mammal, institute of marriage in man is considered by some elite to be unnecessary. From all such instances, we can easily conclude that blind following of nature is not advisable. Right path can be shown by a very intelligent entity. Accordingly, some have drawn the meaning of a ‘leader’ from the word ‘Agni’.  Since, God only is the true leader & guide, it is right to draw the meaning of God from this word.

            God has complete knowledge of everything whereas different things of the world throw light only on one or two perspectives of a thing. Since, God has complete knowledge of everything, the path shown by Him is straight and devoid of crookedness. Right path is only one. In a jungle, there may be hundreds of paths from one place to another. Some of them may lead us to the abodes of dangerous animals. These cannot be called right paths. Right path is always harmless. We develop ourselves through following others but no one would like to follow bad men. As such, there is a prayer to God to direct us on a path, which is free from evils. Wrong paths have attractions but a person, who understands the crookedness of evils, fears from evils, in the way a child fears from fire. Best way to kill temptation of moving on the wrong path is to think of the disadvantages of that evil. An evil-doer finds it impossible to think of the disadvantages of the evil, at the time, it is tempting him. We can see, in the world, that a student, who gets pleasure in wasting time un-fulfils duties of a student, Such a student fails to think of his failure in examination because of his habit of wasting time. A person, who succeeds in thinking of the disadvantages of the evils, is sure to have success.

            In many prayers, there are words suggesting that we pray to God for thousand or million times. Pronunciation of such words refer to the burning desire to obtain the thing prayed for. And a person, who has a burning desire to obtain a thing, not only prays but exerts also according to his capability. Vedic mantras do not accept the prayers, where, doer of prayer does not exert himself according to his own capacity to obtain the desired thing. Whatever is said, should be put into action by mind & behaviour.

            In this mantra, there is a prayer to God for guiding us toward the right path. Such a prayer is meaningful only if, it is made by the mover, who intends to go on that path. For instance, if a person does not intend to go to Kolkata, then, the time-table or enquiry for going to Kolkata is meaningless for him.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

विष्णोः कर्माणि पश्यत---युज्यः सखा।   -Rigved 1/12/19

 

Meaning -O Man! See the activities of God. This helps you in following your resolutions. God is the fastest friend of soul.

Explanation-Here, in this mantra, God has been called by the name ‘Vishnu’. By the word ‘vishnu’, we mean omnipresence of God.

            The Spirit of theism is- God is creator of this universe. By the phrase ‘creator of the universe’, we refer to all the activities, because of which this universe happens to be a universe i.e. from the first movement in elements which caused the beginning of creation of the universe till the last activity resulting into creation of the universe & the later activities because of which this universe is existing as a universe. Doer of all these activities is God. All the theistic sects of the world accept this truth. Activities of man are different from that of God. Maker of clay-pot is not in any way concerned with the causes of existence of clay and the presence of natural laws controlling the maintenance of clay-pot after it has been made i.e. man remains with his creation only uptill the time it has been made. Unlike this, God remains with His creation all the time i.e. till the time it is dissolved.  In accordance with man-made creations, certain thinkers developed the view that God does create the world but does not dwell in it. As there are bad things also in the world, then, how can God exist in the bad things like mud, filth etc.? On the basis of this notion, the idea of separate abode of God called ‘heaven’ developed. Persons of such belief do not accept that God is present in hell as in heaven. Vedic philosophy contradict such view or belief.

 Vedic philosophy accepts that God is not only, creator but also, preserver and dissolver of this world. There is no demarcating line (s) among creation, maintenance and dissolution. We cannot say that at a particular point of time creation has been completed and maintenance will begin. Actually, creation, maintenance and dissolution refer to a continuous flow of innumerable activities.  But, man because of his limited intellect draws boundaries among these activities. Let’s understand this through a worldly example. It is rightly said that movement of the Earth around the Sun create day & night. But, a man, sitting in a space shuttle, cannot say that on a particular point of time, the Sun has risen & at another particular point of time the Sun has set in. Similarly, we cannot say that activities after creation & before dissolution do not require God. This vedic thought is very very important. God called by the name ‘Vishnu’ refers to His attribute of omnipresence. There is nothing in the world, wherein God is not present. As such, there is no special abode of God called heaven.

Some thinkers are of the view that God does not come in the bondage of action and He is not doer of any action but only spectator. This is not only against vedas but also is illogical. The basic difference between living & non-living things is while living things can act on their own whereas non-living things cannot do so. If God cannot act, then, He will come in the category of non-living things. If we do not consider God to be the creator of this universe, then we lose the very ground on which theism stands. Let’s contemplate over this concept through another way. On seeing a watch, you think that it has been made & decide to call the maker of the watch as watch-maker. Accordingly, you think of many attributes of watch-maker and compile the literature of watch-making. If, in the end, it is established that the person, called watch-maker does exist or he is not maker of the watch but mere spectator, then, whole of the literature of watch-making will come to naught. Similarly, if, we consider that this universe has been created by an entity different from God, then, the very basis of theism dwindles. Further, the persons, who consider God to be a mere spectator do not understand the meaning of this term. Spectation becomes meaningful only if, the spectator has the right to affect the observed.  

Further, in this mantra, man has been advised to look at the activities of God in order to strengthen his resolutions. Here, ‘looking’ does not mean simple ‘seeing’. Man sees many events of this universe like rising of the Sun, flowing of a river, growing of vegetation, thundering of clouds etc. but simply seeing does not add to our knowledge leading us to understand the spirit of theism. A servant, who only sees the guest but does not enquire about him & tries to know his purpose of visit and a watchman, who only sees the thieves & does not know his duties after seeing the thieves is useless. Many persons had seen the apples falling from trees but it was only Newton, who actually saw this event and discovered the force of gravitation. Here, ‘to see the activities’ means ‘to have knowledge of the reasons because of which these activities took place’. The act of man of looking at the activities of God is not meaningless. By looking at the activities of God, man channelizes his involuntary flow of actions towards meeting his ultimate objective. All actions are not resolutions. Resolutions are only those actions, which help in meeting the objective. It is human psychology to follow others. But the acts, done merely to follow others cannot be called ‘resolutions’. As such, we should not try to copy God’s activities but keeping our objective in sight, we should select only those paths, moving on which can lead us to fulfil our objective.  Man needs to decide about his resolutions by looking at God’s activities.

In the world, the scientists analyse God’s activities or the events of the nature and follow the same. As a result, on seeing a fish swimming, they invented boats and on seeing the birds flying in the sky, they invented aeroplanes. ‘Following’ is the base of science. But actual objective of science is fulfilled when man understanding the difference in goals of fish or birds and humans, uses the boats & aeroplanes for his own objective. This mantra supports science, whereas many of the prevalent sects consider unveiling the secrets of the world as atheistic. This is the reason of development of the notion that science and religion are two separate or different things, which can never combine. On viewing God’s activities with highest of intellects, we would see that basic rules behind different natural events and souls’ activities are same. Rules of non-violence, truth etc. control the physical world as well as spiritual world. No one can be a theist by going against nature. It is similar to the fact that no one can be well-wisher of a kingdom by breaking the rules of that king.

But, why should we see God’s activities and follow them? This question has been answered in the last part of the mantra, which says that we should follow God’s activities because He is the greatest and most capable friend of soul. Everything of this world advocates friendship of God and soul. For example, God has not only created eye, which is one of the greatest means of knowledge of souls but also has created the Sun for the help of this eye. There cannot be anyone bigger friend than Him, by viewing whose activities we could meet our resolutions correctly.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

 

ईशा वास्यमिदं सर्वं---कस्य स्विद्धनम्।                      -Yajurved 40/1

 

 

Meaning –Whatever activities and events exist in this world, God’s power penetrates them all. O Man! You enjoy the things of the world with detachment. Do not get attached with anything of the world. Whose money is this? i.e. this money belongs to none.

Explanation-Here, in this mantra, the basic criterion of this universe, its relation with the souls & God, probable mistakes of souls while living in this universe and the way of avoiding these mistakes have been mentioned.  The basic criterion of this universe is its changefulness. Everything of the universe goes on changing. Some people say that the movement of the world is imaginary as to a person sitting in a moving car, trees on the road side seem as moving. Here, mind of such a person, who considers movements of this world as imaginary has to be considered as moving or live. This shows that movement is real & not imaginary. It connotes that the various systems (A system is a collective name of movements.) of the world, too, are real. Parts of a machine do not know that they are parts of the machine. Also, a machine does not know that which parts are its own. This knowledge is had by the maker of the machine. Likewise, it becomes necessary that this world, which is a great system has a creator. Some people have a notion that this great system named ‘world’ is automatic. Such people forget that even automatic machines have controllers. Existence of the systems prove that there is a creator of those systems i.e. God. To make the movements possible in everything, He remains present in everything of the world.

            Now, what should be the relation of soul with the ever changing things of the world? Moving on a path is possible only if we detach our back foot and place it ahead i.e. we will not be able to move forward, if our feet get attached to the path. Path is a mean of travelling but only if it does not get attached with the traveller. Path on its own does not attach itself with the traveller, rather, it is the traveller, who clings to the path. The travellers, who wish to reach at their destinations must not get attached to the various attractions, present on the way. This world is like a beautiful garden, which is required to be passed by soul. The soul, who gets caught by the attractions of the garden, cannot cross it to achieve his goal. While crossing this garden, soul can use its various things according to his needs and should consider it a mean of achieving his goal. This is a path to move on and not a place to stay at. Sacrificing spirit is the gist of usage. Sacrificing does not mean non-usage, rather, it means non-attachment.  Real pleasure is received when a thing is enjoyed with detachment. Pain is not in enjoyment but it is in the attachment. We cannot do away with usage of worldly things. It is not possible that we do not eat anything and do not get elated on viewing a beautiful thing. As long as, we are alive, we have to enjoy worldly things and to avoid over-enjoyment, there is an advice of detachment. Last part of the mantra says that things of the world are not for any particular soul. The things of the world at one point of time belongs to one soul and at another point of time belong to another soul. As such, this mantra speaks of four major things-(1)        Reality of the systems of the world (2)          God to be the master of the world (3)            Things of the world are meant for usage (4) not to get attached with the things of the world.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

हिरण्यगर्भः समवर्तताग्रे भूतस्य---हविषा विधेम।   –Rigved 10/121/1

Meaning –Before this creation, there was an entity, wherein all the things of the world existed in seed form. That entity was the one & only master of the universe. That God maintains this earth and all the celestial bodies. We should worship that God with all our possessions.

Explanation- Questions, which get raised in the minds of all intellectuals on seeing this creation are-How was this world made? Who made this world? What state existed before creation of the world?

For making a thing, three types of causes need be there. First is agental cause. It refers to the maker of a thing. Second is material cause. It refers to the materials out of which a thing is to be made. Third is the general cause like hands, tools, knowledge for making, time & place. To better understand this whole concept, let’s illustrate it with a worldly creation like making of a clay-pot. Now, for making of a clay-pot, firstly, the maker of pot is must, secondly, there must be clay which is to be transformed into a pot, thirdly, the knowledge of making the pot, the means necessary for making the pot- hands etc. should be available. Existence of maker of a thing only cannot make a thing. Making of a thing requires presence of other two causes too. Some sects believe that for creating the world, God did not need anything else. He wished and the world was created out of nothing.

This mantra says that this world was not made out of nothing. Nothing is possessed by everyone including all lazy persons & poor persons. If, something more than nothing is required, effort or exertion is needed for that. If, this world was made out of nothing, then, why there is necessity of sowing the seeds of wheat for having the production of wheat and that of sowing the seeds of mangoes for having the production of mangoes. Further, it (this mantra) says that before manifestation of the things of the world, they existed in the seed form in the womb of God (it could not be womb of nature as it is non-living). If a goldsmith could make ornaments without gold, then he would be called not a goldsmith but a magician. Creation is not a handiwork of a magician. God never creates without a material cause. Even today, in God’s creation, water is converted into steam and steam further gets converted into clouds. Clouds are neither made of sand nor devoid of water. God is as powerful today as He was before creation of this world.

God not only creates this world but also maintains it. The basic difference between creation of God and creation of man is- while man separates himself from the thing, after it has been made but unlike this, God remains forever with His creation and assumes the responsibility of maintaining the same. He is the controller of all living and non-living things of the world. He is one and not many. Existence of same rules in whole of the universe prove that controller of this universe is one. He is rightly called master of the universe. God, who keeps the universe in its seed form in His womb maintains or nurtures it in its manifested form.

In the last part of the mantra, man has been advised to worship Him with all his possessions. Worship of that great master should be through mind, speech and behaviour. Our minds should contemplate the attributes of the controller of the universe. We should speak only good things and our acts should be for the welfare of others.

This mantra establishes following things through word-evidence:

  1. God was present before creation of the world.
  2. All the materials, out of which God created this universe were present in God’s womb in seed form.
  3. He has created this universe and is maintaining or nurturing it.
  4. He is one and not many.
  5. We should worship only Him.

 

  -Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

इन्द्र मृळ मह्यं---मा देववन्तम।        -Rigved 6/47/10

Meaning -O omnipotent God! Be kind enough to give us livelihood. May our intellects be sharp like a sword. May I love you with all my heart and you fulfil all my prayers. May I have the qualities of the great men.  

Explanation-

Livelihood

Here, livelihood refers to all the means required for leading a good life. To keep our lives in good shape, we require food, cloths, habitats & medicines. For entertainment, we require beloved ones & friends. To be saved from the attacks of our foes, we require protectors. For mental satiety, we require admirers & followers. All these are means for leading a healthy life. But healthy life, too, needs a goal or purpose. Suppose, we own a vehicle, which is good to look at & strong enough, but, if we are not to go anywhere, then such a vehicle loses its meaningfulness. Everything possesses three qualities-utility, durability & beauty. Out of these three qualities, utility of a thing is the most important. Quality of durability occupies second place. If there is no use of a strong & beautiful thing, then, it is a waste. Use of a thing is possible only if it remains durable for a while. Beauty occupies the last place. It is a relative quality. If a beautiful thing lacks utility, it starts looking ugly. In the world, we see that parents love and prefer the ugly son, who obeys them & remains in their service.

            If God has been kind enough to bestow human life on us, then, his kindness is again prayed for, for giving us the right means for leading a healthy life. Foremost of these means is the love for life. May we have the desire of keeping our lives healthy by recognising His kindness of bestowing human lives on us.

 In many literary works, we find the writings saying that a thing received free of cost loses its recognition by the possessor. Vedic philosophy does not say that life is received free of cost. No doubt, this body is given by God out of His kindness but He gives this body in accordance with our past earnings. As such, we should have love & respect for our life, which should be reflected through all our actions. Life is very valuable and it should be given for a thing, which is more valuable than life itself. Purpose of creation of this world is more valuable than life. Accordingly, life can be given for meeting the purpose of creation. As such, to commit suicide is a greatest sin.

Importance of sharpness of intellect

It is really difficult to safeguard such a valuable life. There are many hurdles in this way. Some of these hurdles come in the form of avarice. The basic problem in meeting these hurdles is that we find difficulty in recognising hurdles as hurdles. Man’s greatest weakness is that he recognises his foes as his friends & his friends as his foes. If we analyse human life, we will find that man gets pains because he considers his foes as his friends & harmful things as beneficial ones. Only a sharp intellect can meet this difficulty. That person is the weakest, whose intellect is blunt. Use of intellect is discouraged especially in religious fields. Intellect gets sharpened by questioning spirit but religious teachers of many sects discourage this questioning spirit of the people by saying that exploration of the secrets of the world is against the desire of God. But vedas do not teach this. Without using our intellect, how would we come to know that which principles of which teacher are acceptable and which principles of which teacher are unacceptable? All the sects consider their preachers to be true and preachers of other sects to be wrong. Except intellect, we possess nothing to distinguish between truth and untruth.

It is true that man’s intellect is small and it cannot comprehend subtle matters. It is also true that intellects of all the persons is not equal. Even knives are not equal in sharpness. For hard substances, sharper knives are required as compared to for soft substances. Here, nowhere negation of intellect is meant. If we do not use our intellect considering it small, then, it will bring two disadvantages. Firstly, we will be devoid of the armoury we had in our fight against ills. What else, except intellect we have? Secondly, with the non-use of intellect it will become blunter & blunter. With the regular usage, even a blunt intellect becomes sharper with the passage of time and if, intellect is not used at all, then, even sharp intellect becomes blunt. As such, the greatest foe of ‘dharm’ is the person, who in the name of his sect advices non-usage of intellect. Intellect can be sharpened only through usage. In the world, we see that everyone from a fruit seller to a preacher of salvation, try to befool us. Like goodness of fruits, way to the salvation, too, will be judged by the intellect. The vedic principle is- a thing should be agreed to, only if, it is acceptable to the intellect. For these reasons, in this mantra, intellect has been compared with a sharp sword and intellect, capable of understanding the ultimate truth has been prayed for.

True worshipper

A true worshipper cannot pray for a thing, which is against the will of God. He does not pray for any specific condition but remains happy in the ways of God, even if those ways are seemingly disadvantageous to him. A worshipper moves closer to God to the extent he accepts the ways of God from his heart. As such, the prayers, wherein the worshipper clings to his demands are against vedas.

Objective of praying

In the last part, the mantra specifies that a worshipper prays for the things from God with the objective of becoming great human being. If the attributes of God do not flow in the worshipper, then his worship becomes meaningless. Meaningfulness of life lies in reaching at the level of the greatest of men from the level of ordinary human beings.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

                        सं गच्छध्वं सं वदध्वं---संजानाना उपासते।        -Rigved 10/191/2

Meaning -O Men! Bring oneness in your walking and talking. May minds of you all meet at one place in your search for truth. By oneness of your thinking, speech and actions, you decide about share of each with love on the foot-prints of learned ones i.e. great men.

Explanation- This mantra preaches about the ways of making & maintaining a good human society and the methods by which the highest benefit can be obtained from it. It refers to the crux of Rigved.

            This preaching is for humans, since other animals can be benefitted by a disciplined human society only.

            Man is a gregarious animal. Animals like pigs, cows, crows, bees, ants etc., too, live in groups but it is really a big task to create human societies and maintain them. It needs very intelligent planning. Similar types of organisations of animals other than humans are seen from time immemorial without any need of any social-literature. But, for creation of a good human society, social-literatures are regularly made according to different times & different civilizations.

            There are three methods of bringing oneness in humans. These methods are-walking, speaking & thinking. Society does not refer to groups. Even ten organised men can be called a society if, they have the qualities of a good society. Building a good society needs a proper planning behind it.

            O Men! Bring oneness in your walking. How is it possible? Speed of everyone varies. A slow person does not have the capability to walk faster and why should a quick-walker curtail his speed? But, if, all the people think like this, then, a good society cannot be made and without a good social structure, man cannot progress. Control by quick-walkers over their speeds and exertion on the part of slow-walkers are two means of bringing oneness in walking. Concept of oneness in walking can be better understood by looking at the parade of soldiers. In a parade of soldiers, there are hundreds of men having different speeds of walking. But, their control is such that when one person raises his right foot, then, all the others, too, raise their right feet. A soldier having the capacity to walk faster controls his speed and lowers the same a bit and a soldier having a slow speed raises his speed a bit. An army, which does not possess the quality of moving at the same speed cannot be called disciplined one and such an army cannot conquer its foes. As such, this mantra reiterates the fact that progress or development of a society does not depend upon the number of its members. Instead, members of a society should be disciplined enough to bring coordination in their movements.

            The mean of bringing coordination in the movements is communication through sweet voice. Voice of the commander saying left, right coordinates the movements of all the soldiers. Suppose, a father wants his kid to move along with him.  Child says that he has not the capacity to move at the speed of his father. Father replies that the kid need not worry. Further, he says that he will move at a slow speed and asks his kid to hold one of his fingers. Communication inspires the kid to move faster. From this instance, we can rightly conclude that speech or voice is inspirer of feet, where, feet represent movements. Voice is subtler than feet and mind is subtler than both of these two.

            This mantra, further, says that all the members of a society should have oneness in their thoughts and this is the greatest mean of making a good society. The origination of conflicts & quarrels lie in difference in thoughts. Difference of thoughts create unrests in the society. As such, biggest mean of building a society is to have meaningful meetings. In the meetings, the persons having different view-points sit together and have discussions on a particular topic. Discussions enable man to coordinate his view-point with that of the others. Every thought towards selfish gains include an element of harm and this element of harm gets visible or understandable through healthy discussions. In politics, there is a great importance of such discussions or negotiations.

            Lastly, this mantra points towards the method adopted by the learned fellows for distributions of various assets of the universe among different souls. All the living beings require a portion of this universe for healthy living. Non-learned fellows are guided by their vested interests towards this end whereas for learned ones, welfare of others assumes the priority and the other people do the actions for the gains of learned ones by following their foot-steps. ‘Yaj’ means all actions done for the welfare of others. As such, we can say that a good society is built by ‘yaj’ and all persons get their due parts in the universe through it.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

कुर्वन्नेवेह कर्माणि जिजीविषेच्छतं-----लिप्यते नरे।               -Yajurved 40/2

 

Meaning – Man should wish for an active life of hundred years. This is the only mean to be free from bondages. There is no other way out.

Explanation- This mantra shows the importance of karmas (actions). Main concept of this mantra is-
“Do actions. Only actions can make you free from the bondages”.

 This sentence seems to be a paradox, which gets cleared on elaboration. Actions create bondages and to be free from these bondages, only actions are the means but such actions are of different sort. Let’s explain this concept through an example. Ill-will creates diseases. Here, ill-will refers to actions and diseases refer to bondages. Diseases can be got cured through treatments, which are another kind of actions.

There is a notion that God decides as to who is to remain in bondage and who is to be freed from bondages irrespective of his karmas. This has, further, resulted into another notion that government has built very strong jails and whatever a jailed person may try, he cannot be free from the bondage of jail. To say it in in other words, some people believe that one can do nothing but wait till God wills to free him from bondages. Number of people having such a notion is the highest among the so called theists. Such a notion has resulted into inertness.

All the actions cannot free one from bondages. Actions like breaking the jail or befooling the watchman do not lose bondages, rather, because of such actions bondages become stricter.

All persons live but very few people think that what they will do by living. There is no meaning of living without a desire to do karmas. Had God willed man to lead an inactive life, He would not had bestowed man with knowledge-senses (eyes, ears, nostril, taste-buds & skin) and karm-senses (hands, feet, speaking ability of tongue, genital organ & anus). God has instilled in all our organs some sort of inspiration to be engaged continuously in doing karmas. The karmas, which we do wilfully give us pleasure and the karmas, which we do un-wilfully become means of our bondages. People enjoy walking but if there is a compulsion or order to walk irrespective of one’s will, then, even walking would lose its enjoyment. As such, there is an advice, in this mantra, to man to wish to live for hundred years and to lead a life of concrete planning towards moving forward on the path of his ultimate goal. A person, who intelligently plans his karmas and tries to move according to that, breaks the shackles of all bondages. A prisoner, who continuously does his assigned tasks & behaves well with others, becomes free from the bondage of prison one day.

There can be three types of defects in doing karmas-not doing the duty, doing undutiful actions & doing the duty the wrong way. Karmas with any of these three defects become the reason of bondage. When, it is said that we cannot remain for a moment without doing any karma, then, it never means that we should do any action without thinking of its results.  Actually, there cannot be any karma without thinking of its result. A farmer before sowing wheat thinks of the benefit he would drive by sowing wheat. Here, the thought of result or fruit is not ignored. What concerns, here, is mentality of doing karma. When, it becomes certain that a particular action is our duty, then, it is not right to go on pondering over the fruit. To understand this concept, let’s take the help of an example. Suppose, you are employed in a company. You accepted the job only when it became certain that you will get so much pay for the job. But, when you are on the job, you think only of the work at hand and do not go on pondering over your salary. An employee, who leaves thinking of his work and remains busy in thinking of the salary cannot be called a good worker.

Some people think that this mantra is not for learned ones and learned fellows do not need to do their duty. There is an assumption that knowledge & karmas are two separate things. But, actually, such is not the case. Only a knowledgeable person can perform his duties well. This fact can be verified from our day to day incidents. When, there is no coordination between mind & hands, feet etc., then, it is said to be a state of insanity. Actually, this mantra advises man to do all his duties with thorough application of mind & with proper knowledge as this is the only way to be free from the bondages of actions. Many knowledgeable persons might have propagated the theory of difference in knowledge & karmas by way of their commentaries of vedas probably, for the reason of fighting with certain prevalent conditions of their times. But, this was an imaginary remedy which cured one disease and created another. Such sort of commentaries of vedas drove man away from the knowledge hidden in these mantras.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

सहॄदयं सांमनस्यविद्वेषं---वत्सं जातमिवाघ्न्या।         -Atharvved 3/30/1

Meaning –I make you a person of good mind and heart. One human being should behave with another in the way cow behaves with her new born baby.

Explanation- In this mantra, there is a great teaching as to how one should behave with others. Here, the sentence- ‘I make you a person of good mind and heart.’ means that the purpose of this teaching of mine is that you become so. The style of all the vedic mantras is such that they are teachings from God to man or from teachers to their disciples or from the preachers to listeners. All the teachings of the preachers should be such that man can improve his behaviour by that.

An ideal human being possesses two basic qualities. First, he possesses a loving heart and does not have any ill feelings towards anybody. Second, he is intelligent enough to comprehend the spirit of everything. If, one has loving heart only and does not possess the decisive power of mind, then he cannot do welfare of the world. An unintelligent person is harmful not only for his own self but also for others. Suppose, you are sleeping and a bee sits on your nose. An unintelligent friend of yours, who loves you very much is sitting beside you. Out of his love for you, he intends to save you from his sting. For saving you from his sting, he picks up a stone & strikes the same on your nose. Bee flies and your nose gets hurt. What will you say of such a friend? No doubt, this friend had a loving heart but had no mind. This world is full of such loving people, who do not have minds. Millions of foolish parents out of their love for their children destroy their future. Most of the people get involved in attachment & lust in the name of love, without understanding the real spirit of this word. A foe is said to be intelligent, if, he understands the importance of your friendship for his vested interests and befriends with you for the sake of his selfishness. Likewise, a person is intelligent, if, he understands that his welfare lies in welfare of others and so thinking, he devotes his actions for the welfare of others not for any charitable cause, but, for his own sake. Thinking bad of others is a contagious disease and it can be cured only by the combination of good heart & intelligent mind. This thought is there in many vedic mantras. Whenever, there is an emotion of hatred towards anything or anybody, remember that this mantra reiterates loudly that thinking so is against the purpose of creation as well as against the will of God.  

In all the languages, three types of words are used as names of things. First type of words, used for names of things are those, where there is perfect correlation between the words used and qualities & nature of the things named. On a little deterioration, such words refer to mean only particular things possessing qualities & natures embedded in the word. On further deterioration, words used as name of things do not at all relate with the qualities & natures embedded in the words. For instance, there is a Sanskrit word ‘pankaj’, which means growing in water. All the things grown in water can be named as ‘pankaj’. But with a little deterioration, a particular flower grown in water is used to be meant by this word. When a particular person is named as Pankaj, it connotes to the stage when name of things do not at all relate with the qualities & natures embedded in the words.

The word ‘aganya’, used in this mantra means all the things, which should not be killed. But, here, this word refers to a particular animal i.e. cow. Why is this word used to mean cow? Cow’s milk comes after that of the human-mother. For this reason, we happen to develop special regard for cow. Cow is epitome of love and generosity. Cow occupies a very important place in vedic culture. There are two primary needs of a child. First is cleansing and second is food. Human-mother gets occupied in her own weakness after giving birth that primary care of the new-born baby is taken by the close relatives of the human-mother whereas first act of cow after giving birth is to cleanse her new-born baby from the filth of the womb. Love of cow for her baby becomes the means of cleaning. Dirty things can be touched by hands or feet, smelled by nose but tongue is considered such a pure part of the body that everyone is disinclined in placing dirty things on his tongue. But, cow cleans the filth of the womb from her new-born baby by her tongue. After, getting cleaned, requirement of the new-born baby is food. Although, every mother is eager enough to feed her baby by her milk but not like cow. Love cannot be explained better by the example of love of cow for her new-born baby. Ved has beautifully described ‘love’, through the example of cow. This example teaches us that we should act for physical, mental & social cleansing of the persons coming in our contacts.  

If a rich man distributes cloths or food among the poor people and does not think of removing economic & social ills present in them, then, his act cannot be acclaimed. Most of the charitable or generous acts are done unintelligently and because of this reason, they increase social ills.

In the end, we can reiterate the teachings of this mantra in following sentences.

  1.   Love all other beings.
  1. Combine your emotion of love with intelligence.
  2. Behave with others in such a way that there is no room for hatred.

 

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya

 

 

उद् वयं तमसस्परि---सूर्यमगन्म ज्योतिरुतत्मम्।  -Rigved 1/50/10

Meaning – Rising above the darkness or evils, we saw light of God. On moving farther, we found more light and on still moving farther, we realized the illuminator of all illumined things i.e. God.

Explanation- Man engrossed in worldly affairs fails to see God, who is present in all worldly things. It is similar to our inability to see the shining sun, when whole of the atmosphere around us is covered by dense fog. Worldly affairs cover up the light just like fog. Everyone does not see God. Had God been visible to every person, all the persons of the world would have been theists and there would not have been any place for darkness & evils in the world. Seeing capacity of all persons is not the same. What to talk of Godliness, even physical things are not seen by all of us alike. The attributes, which a scientist can see in a plant cannot be seen by a kid. Eye of a gardener is more powerful than that of a common man and likewise, eye of a scientist is more powerful than that of a gardener. This fact establishes a very important truth that theism is not obtained instantly like a magic. A child studying letter by letter becomes capable of studying very difficult books after a period of time. If a person wants to become a mathematician, the knowledge of mathematics is not acquired by him in a day. Similarly, obtaining knowledge in any field takes time. In the same manner, theism cannot be acquired in a day. One cannot become a theist or have the knowledge of the biggest entity i.e, God by listening to a few discourses.

            When, we are unable to see the sun because of fog, then, if, we move to a height, we will see the bright sun. Why? It is because, we have moved higher than fog. The fact, which applies on physical light, also, applies on mental & spiritual knowledge. For an illiterate person, a book is as if, someone has spread ink on blank papers but when he starts moving towards literacy, then, every letter becomes representative of knowledge.

            One, who intends to realize God must raise himself higher than evils. Specific method of realising God has been explained in yog-sutras, wherein realisation of non-violence & truth have been mentioned to be the elementary steps for God-realization and truth etc. cannot be realised in a day. How can the persons, not willing to raise themselves above the darkness of untruth & violence realize God? Lives of great men represent the high altitudes, above which, light of wisdom become visible and for this reason they (lives of great men) are great inspirations for common man.  

            When, one sees a ray of light, he should not be satisfied by that condition. He should go on practicing. Soon, he would be able to see more light. Ultimately, on saturation of practice, he would be able to see the source of light i.e. God.

            When, one rises above the darkness of evils, the light, which was earlier hardly visible to him becomes clearer & clearer and he begins to understand that light of God is brighter than all other lights and brightness of all other lights is because of light of God. All the illumined objects of the world owe their illuminations to the light of God.

            Looking in the upward direction for heaven, actually, connotes rising above the darkness of evils. Light of God is visible to that heart only, wherein darkness of evils has lessened. It is similar to the fact that a dirty mirror fails to reflect the light of sun.

            In summation of this mantra, we can say that there is step by step development of theism. Higher stage is reached by continuous practice.

-Majority of the thoughts are of Pt. Ganga Prasad Upadhaya